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## Stress–strain curveA ## Additional recommended knowledge## Ductile materials
Steel generally exhibits a very linear stress–strain relationship up to a well defined yield point (figure 1). The linear portion of the curve is the elastic region and the slope is the modulus of elasticity or Young's Modulus. After the yield point the curve typically decreases slightly due to dislocations escaping from Cottrell atmospheres. As deformation continues the stress increases due to strain hardening until it reaches the ultimate strength. Until this point the cross-sectional area decreases uniformly due to Poisson contractions. However, beyond this point a Most ductile metals other than steel do not have a well-defined yield point (figure 2). For these materials the yield strength is typically determined by the "offset yield method", by which a line is drawn parallel to the linear elastic portion of the curve and intersecting the abscissa at some arbitrary value (most commonly .2%). The intersection of this line and the stress–strain curve is reported as the yield point. ## Brittle materialsBrittle materials such as ceramics do not have a yield point. For these materials the rupture strength and the ultimate strength are the same, therefore the stress-strain curve would consist of only the elastic region, followed by a failure of the material. ## PropertiesThe area underneath the stress–strain curve is the toughness of the material—the energy the material can absorb prior to rupture. The resilience of the material is the triangular area underneath the elastic region of the curve. |

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Stress–strain_curve". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. |