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Sugammadex (designation Org 25969) is a novel agent for reversal of neuromuscular blockade by the agent rocuronium in general anaesthesia. Sugammadex is currently in Phase 3 study and has not been approved for use. It is the first selective relaxant binding agent (SRBA). 
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Sugammadex is a modified γ-cyclodextrin, with a lipophilic core and a hydrophilic periphery. This gamma cyclodextrin has been modified from its natural state by placing eight carboxyl thio ether groups at the sixth carbon positions. These extensions extend the cavity size allowing greater encapsulation of the rocuronium molecule. These negatively charged extensions electrostatically bind to the positively charged ammonium group as well as contribute to the aqueous nature of the cyclodextrin. Sugammadex's binding encapsulation of rocuronium has been found to be one of the strongest among cyclodextrin and their guest molecules. The rocuronium molecule (a modified steroid) bound within sugammadex's lipophilic core, is rendered unavailable to bind to the acetycholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction. Sugammadex binding to rocuronium has been found to be very strong.
Recurarisation, a phenomenon of recurrence of neuromuscular block, may occur where the reversal agents wear off before a neuromuscular blocking drug is completely cleared. This is very unusual with all but the longest acting neuromuscular blocking drugs (such as gallamine, pancuronium or tubocurarine). It has been demonstrated to occur only rarely with sugammadex, and only when insufficient doses were administered.
γ-cyclodextrins have eight glucose units around the central ring of the molecule. Other cyclodextrins have different numbers, and correspondingly different properties.
Sugammadex also has some affinity for the aminosteroid neuromuscular blocking agents vecuronium and pancuronium. Though sugammadex's affinity for vecuronium is lower than its affinity for rocuronium, reversal of vecuronium is still effective because less vecuronium molecules are present in vivo for equivalent blockade. Vecuronium is approximately seven times more potent than rocuronium and overall requires less molecules to induce blockade. Sugammadex encapsulates with a 1:1 ratio and therefore will adequately reverse vecuronium as there are less molecules to bind compared to rocuronium.  Shallow Pancuronium blockade has been successfully reversed by sugammadex in phase III clinical trials. 
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Sugammadex". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|