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# Surface-wave-sustained mode

Plasmas that are excited by propagation of electromagnetic surface waves are called surface-wave-sustained. Surface wave plasma sources can be divided into two groups depending upon whether the plasma generates part of its own waveguide by ionisation or not. The former is called a self-guided plasma. The surface wave mode allows to generate uniform high-frequency-excited plasmas in volumes whose lateral dimensions extends over several wavelengths of the electromagnetic wave, e.g. for microwaves of 2.45 GHz in vacuum the wavelength amounts to 12.2 cm.

$\delta \simeq c\,\big/\sqrt{\omega_{p_e}^2 - \omega^2}.$