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Isotopes of hydrogen



 

Hydrogen (H) (Standard atomic mass: 1.00794(7) u) has three naturally occurring isotopes, denoted 1H, 2H, and 3H. Other, highly unstable nuclei (4H to 7H) have been synthesized in the laboratory but not observed in nature.[1][2]

Hydrogen is the only element that has different names for its isotopes in common use today. (During the early study of radioactivity, various heavy radioactive isotopes were given names, but such names are no longer used). The symbols D and T (instead of 2H and 3H) are sometimes used for deuterium and tritium, but the symbol P is already in use for phosphorus and thus is not available for protium. IUPAC states that while this use is common it is not preferred.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Hydrogen-1 (protium)

For more details on this topic, see Hydrogen atom.

1H is the most common hydrogen isotope with an abundance of more than 99.98%. Because the nucleus of this isotope consists of only a single proton, it is given the descriptive but rarely used formal name protium.

Hydrogen-2 (deuterium)

For more details on this topic, see Deuterium.

2H, the other stable hydrogen isotope, is known as deuterium and contains one proton and one neutron in its nucleus. Deuterium comprises 0.0026 – 0.0184% (by mole-fraction or atom-fraction) of hydrogen samples on Earth, with the lower number tending to be found in samples of hydrogen gas and the higher enrichments (0.015% or 150 ppm) typical of ocean water. Deuterium is not radioactive, and does not represent a significant toxicity hazard. Water enriched in molecules that include deuterium instead of normal hydrogen is called heavy water. Deuterium and its compounds are used as a non-radioactive label in chemical experiments and in solvents for 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Heavy water is used as a neutron moderator and coolant for nuclear reactors. Deuterium is also a potential fuel for commercial nuclear fusion.

Hydrogen-3 (tritium)

For more details on this topic, see Tritium.

3H is known as tritium and contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus. It is radioactive, decaying into Helium-3 through β− decay with a half-life of 12.32 years.[3] Small amounts of tritium occur naturally because of the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric gases; tritium has also been released during nuclear weapons tests. It is used in nuclear fusion reactions, as a tracer in isotope geochemistry, and specialized in self-powered lighting devices. Tritium was once routinely used in chemical and biological labeling experiments as a radiolabel (this has become less common).

Hydrogen-4

For more details on this topic, see Hydrogen-4.

4H is a highly unstable isotope of hydrogen. The nucleus consists of a proton and three neutrons. It has been synthesised in the laboratory by bombarding tritium with fast-moving deuterium nuclei.[4] In this experiment, the tritium nuclei captured neutrons from the fast-moving deuterium nucleus. The presence of the hydrogen-4 was deduced by detecting the emitted protons. Its atomic mass is 4.0279121. It decays through neutron emission and has a half-life of 9.93696x10-23 seconds.

Hydrogen-5

For more details on this topic, see Hydrogen-5.

5H is a highly unstable isotope of hydrogen. The nucleus consists of a proton and four neutrons. It has been synthesised in the laboratory by bombarding tritium with fast-moving tritium nuclei.[4] In this experiment, the one tritium nucleus captures two neutrons from the other, becoming a nucleus with one proton and four neutrons. The remaining proton may be detected, and the existence of hydrogen-5 deduced. It decays through neutron emission and has a half-life of 8.01930x10-23 seconds.

Hydrogen-6

6H decays through triple neutron emission and has a half-life of 3×10−22 seconds.

Hydrogen-7

7H consists of a proton and six neutrons. It was first synthesised in 2003 by a group of Russian, Japanese and French scientists at RIKEN's RI Beam Science Laboratory by bombarding hydrogen with helium-8 atoms. In the resulting reaction, the helium-8's neutrons were donated to the hydrogen's nucleus. The two remaining protons were detected by the "RIKEN telescope", a device composed of several layers of sensors, positioned behind the target of the RI Beam cyclotron.

Muonium (Mu or µ+e-)

For more details on this topic, see Muonium.

A muonium particle is an exotic atom made up of an antimuon (the muon's positively charged antiparticle) and an electron,[5] and is given the symbol Mu or µ+e. During the muon's 2 µs lifetime, muonium can enter into compounds such as muonium chloride (MuCl) or sodium muonide (NaMu).[6]

Table

nuclide
symbol
Z(p) N(n) isotopic mass (u) half-life nuclear
spin
representative
isotopic
composition
(mole fraction)
range of natural
variation
(mole fraction)
1H 1 0 1.00782503207(10) STABLE [>2.8×1023 a] 1/2+ 0.999885(70) 0.999816-0.999974
2H 1 1 2.0141017778(4) STABLE 1+ 0.000115(70) 0.000026-0.000184
3H 1 2 3.0160492777(25) 12.32(2) a 1/2+
4H 1 3 4.02781(11) 1.39(10)×10-22 s [4.6(9) MeV] 2-
5H 1 4 5.03531(11) >9.1×10-22 s ? (1/2+)
6H 1 5 6.04494(28) 2.90(70)×10-22 s [1.6(4) MeV] 2-#
7H 1 6 7.05275(108)# 2.3(6)×10-23# s [20(5)# MeV] 1/2+#

Notes

  • The isotopic composition refers to that in water.
  • The precision of the isotope abundances and atomic mass is limited through variations. The given ranges should be applicable to any normal terrestrial material.
  • Commercially available materials may have been subjected to an undisclosed or inadvertent isotopic fractionation. Substantial deviations from the given mass and composition can occur.
  • Tank hydrogen has a 2H abundance as low as 3.2×10-5 (mole fraction).
  • Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
  • Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.

References

  • Isotope masses from Ame2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation by G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon in Nuclear Physics A729 (2003).
  • Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl. Chem. Vol. 75, No. 6, pp. 683-800, (2003) and Atomic Weights Revised (2005).
  • Half-life, spin, and isomer data selected from these sources. Editing notes on this article's talk page.
    • Audi, Bersillon, Blachot, Wapstra. The Nubase2003 evaluation of nuclear and decay properties, Nuc. Phys. A 729, pp. 3-128 (2003).
    • National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Information extracted from the NuDat 2.1 database (retrieved Sept. 2005).
    • David R. Lide (ed.), Norman E. Holden in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition, online version. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005). Section 11, Table of the Isotopes.
  1. ^ Gurov YB, Aleshkin DV, Berh MN, Lapushkin SV, Morokhov PV, Pechkurov VA, Poroshin NO, Sandukovsky VG, Tel'kushev MV, Chernyshev BA, Tschurenkova TD. (2004). Spectroscopy of superheavy hydrogen isotopes in stopped-pion absorption by nuclei. Physics of Atomic Nuclei 68(3):491–497.
  2. ^ Korsheninnikov AA. et al. (2003). Experimental Evidence for the Existence of 7H and for a Specific Structure of 8He. Phys Rev Lett 90, 082501.
  3. ^ Miessler GL, Tarr DA. (2004). Inorganic Chemistry 3rd ed. Pearson Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA
  4. ^ a b Ter-Akopian. Hydrogen-4 and Hydrogen-5 from t+t and t+d transfer reactions studied with a 57.5-MeV triton beam.
  5. ^ International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. "muonium". Compendium of Chemical Terminology Internet edition.
  6. ^ Names for muonium and hydrogen atoms and their ions iupac.org (PDF)

In fiction

In the 1955 satirical novel The Mouse That Roared, the name quadium was given to the hydrogen-4 isotope that powered the Q-bomb that the Duchy of Grand Fenwick captured from the United States.


Free neutron Isotopes of hydrogen Isotopes of helium
Index to isotope pages
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Isotopes_of_hydrogen". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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