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Isotopes of scandium



Naturally occurring scandium (Sc) is composed of 1 stable isotope 45Sc. 13 radioisotopes have been characterized with the most stable being 46Sc with a half-life of 83.8 days, 47Sc with a half-life of 3.35 days, and 48Sc with a half-life of 43.7 hours. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half lives that are less than 4 hours, and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 2 minutes. This element also has 100 meta states with the most stable being 44mSc (t½ 58.6 h).

Additional recommended knowledge

The isotopes of scandium range in atomic weight from 40 u (40Sc) to 54 u (54Sc). The primary decay mode at masses lower than the only stable isotope, 45Sc, is electron capture, and the primary mode at masses above it is beta emission. The primary decay products at atomic weights below 45Sc are calcium isotopes and the primary products from higher atomic weights are titanium isotopes.


Standard atomic mass: 44.955912(6) u

Table

nuclide
symbol
Z(p) N(n)  
isotopic mass (u)
 
half-life nuclear
spin
representative
isotopic
composition
(mole fraction)
range of natural
variation
(mole fraction)
excitation energy
36Sc 21 15 36.01492(54)#
37Sc 21 16 37.00305(32)# 7/2-#
38Sc 21 17 37.99470(32)# <300 ns (2-)#
39Sc 21 18 38.984790(26) <300 ns (7/2-)#
40Sc 21 19 39.977967(3) 182.3(7) ms 4-
41Sc 21 20 40.96925113(24) 596.3(17) ms 7/2-
42Sc 21 21 41.96551643(29) 681.3(7) ms 0+
42mSc 616.28(6) keV 61.7(4) s (7,5,6)+
43Sc 21 22 42.9611507(20) 3.891(12) h 7/2-
43m1Sc 151.4(2) keV 438(7) µs 3/2+
43m2Sc 3123.2(3) keV 470(4) ns (19/2)-
44Sc 21 23 43.9594028(19) 3.97(4) h 2+
44m1Sc 67.8680(14) keV 154.2(8) ns 1-
44m2Sc 270.95(20) keV 58.61(10) h 6+
44m3Sc 146.224(22) keV 50.4(7) µs 0-
45Sc 21 24 44.9559119(9) STABLE 7/2- 1.0000
45mSc 12.40(5) keV 318(7) ms 3/2+
46Sc 21 25 45.9551719(9) 83.79(4) d 4+
46m1Sc 52.011(1) keV 9.4(8) µs 6+
46m2Sc 142.528(7) keV 18.75(4) s 1-
47Sc 21 26 46.9524075(22) 3.3492(6) d 7/2-
47mSc 766.83(9) keV 272(8) ns (3/2)+
48Sc 21 27 47.952231(6) 43.67(9) h 6+
49Sc 21 28 48.950024(4) 57.2(2) min 7/2-
50Sc 21 29 49.952188(17) 102.5(5) s 5+
50mSc 256.895(10) keV 350(40) ms 2+,3+
51Sc 21 30 50.953603(22) 12.4(1) s (7/2)-
52Sc 21 31 51.95668(21) 8.2(2) s 3(+)
53Sc 21 32 52.95961(32)# >3 s (7/2-)#
54Sc 21 33 53.96326(40) 260(30) ms 3+#
54mSc 110(3) keV 7(5) µs (5+)
55Sc 21 34 54.96824(79) 0.115(15) s 7/2-#
56Sc 21 35 55.97287(75)# 35(5) ms (1+)
57Sc 21 36 56.97779(75)# 13(4) ms 7/2-#
58Sc 21 37 57.98371(86)# 12(5) ms (3+)#
59Sc 21 38 58.98922(97)# 10# ms 7/2-#
60Sc 21 39 59.99571(97)# 3# ms 3+#

Notes

  • Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
  • Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.

References

  • Isotope masses from Ame2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation by G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon in Nuclear Physics A729 (2003).
  • Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl. Chem. Vol. 75, No. 6, pp. 683-800, (2003) and Atomic Weights Revised (2005).
  • Half-life, spin, and isomer data selected from these sources. Editing notes on this article's talk page.
    • Audi, Bersillon, Blachot, Wapstra. The Nubase2003 evaluation of nuclear and decay properties, Nuc. Phys. A 729, pp. 3-128 (2003).
    • National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Information extracted from the NuDat 2.1 database (retrieved Sept. 2005).
    • David R. Lide (ed.), Norman E. Holden in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition, online version. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005). Section 11, Table of the Isotopes.


Isotopes of calcium Isotopes of scandium Isotopes of titanium
Index to isotope pages
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Isotopes_of_scandium". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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