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Bromoethane



Bromoethane
Other names Ethyl bromide
Identifiers
CAS number 74-96-4
RTECS number KH6475000
SMILES CCBr
Properties
Molecular formula C2H5Br
Molar mass 108.97 g/mol
Appearance Colourless liquid
Density 1.47 g/cm3, liquid
Melting point

−119 °C (154 K)

Boiling point

38.4 °C

Solubility in water 0.91 g/100 ml (20 °C)
Viscosity 0.402 cP at 20 °C
Hazards
EU classification Flammable (F)
Carc. Cat. 3
Harmful (Xn)
NFPA 704
1
2
0
 
R-phrases R11, R20/22, R40
S-phrases (S2), S36/37
Flash point −20 °C
Autoignition
temperature
511 °C
Explosive limits 6.8–11%
Related Compounds
Related haloalkanes bromomethane
Chloroethane
Iodoethane
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Bromoethane, also known as ethyl bromide is a chemical compound of the haloalkanes group. It is abbreviated by chemists as EtBr. This volatile compound has an ether-like odour.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Synthesis

The preparation of EtBr stands as a model for the synthesis of alkyl bromides in general. It is usually prepared by the addition of HBr to ethylene:

H2C=CH2 + HBr → H3C-CH2Br

Ethyl bromide is inexpensive and would rarely be prepared in the laboratory. Convenient laboratory syntheses include the action of phosphorus tribromide or thionyl bromide on ethanol. EtBr forms when ethanol is treated with HBr or hydrobromic acid, although this reaction also affords diethyl ether.

Uses

In organic synthesis, EtBr is the synthetic equivalent of the ethyl carbocation (Et+) synthon. In reality, such a cation is not actually formed. For example, carboxylates salts are converted to ethyl esters,[1] carbanions to ethylated derivatives, thiourea into ethylisothiouronium salts,[2] and amines into ethylamines.[3]

Being a liquid at room temperature but still very volatile, EtBr is an inexpensive reagent for the preparation of Grignard reagents, which traditionally were used as strong base. Thus EtMgBr deprotonates alkynes:[4][5][6]

EtBr + Mg → EtMgBr
RC≡CH + EtMgBr → RC≡CMgBr + EtH

This application has been supplanted by the wide availability of organolithium reagents.

Safety

Halocarbons in general are potentially dangerous alkylating agents. Bromides are more superior alkylating agents than chlorides, thus exposure to EtBr should be minimized. EtBr is classified by the State of California as carcinogenic and a reproductive toxin.

References

  1. ^ Petit, Y.; Larchevêque, M.. "Ethyl Glycidate from (S)-Serine: Ethyl (R)-(+)-2,3-Epoxypropanoate". Org. Synth. 75: 37; Coll. Vol. 10: 401. 
  2. ^ E. Brand, E.; Brand, F. C.. "Guanidodacetic Acid". Org. Synth. 22: 440; Coll. Vol. 3. 
  3. ^ Brasen, W. R; Hauser, C. R.. "o-Methylethylbenzyl Alcohol". Org. Synth. 34: 58; Coll. Vol. 4: 582. 
  4. ^ Taniguchi, H.; Mathai, I. M.; Miller, S. I.. "1-Phenyl-1,4-Pentadiyne and 1-Phenyl-1,3-Pentadiyne". Org. Synth. 50: 97; Coll. Vol. 6: 925. 
  5. ^ A. J. Quillinan, A. J.; Scheinmann, F.. "3-Alkyl-1-alkynes Synthesis: 3-Ethyle-1-hexyne". Org. Synth. 58: 1; Coll. Vol. 6: 595. 
  6. ^ Newman, M. S.; Stalick, W. M.. "1-Ethoxy-1-butyne". Org. Synth. 57: 65; Coll. Vol. 6: 564. 
  • Makosza, M.; Jonczyk, A.. "Phase-Transfer Alkylation of Nitriles: 2-Phenylbutyronitrile". Org. Synth. 55: 91; Coll. Vol. 6: 897. 
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Bromoethane". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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