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Causes of hypoglycemia





This list of causes of hypoglycemia is separated from the main article because of its length. Despite its length, it is not exhaustive, as new causes are reported regularly in the medical literature. In many individual instances of hypoglycemia, more than one contributing factor may be identifiable. In this list are some factors not usually sufficient to cause hypoglycemia by themselves. Some of these causes are represented by single case reports.


Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Causes of Transient Neonatal Hypoglycemia

  • Prematurity
  • Intrauterine growth retardation
    • Smaller of twins
  • Severe infant respiratory distress syndrome
  • Maternal toxemia
  • Perinatal asphyxia
  • Critical illness

Starvation, Inadequate Intake Or Absorption

Major Organ Failure & Critical Illness

  • Congestive heart failure
  • Cyanotic congenital heart disease
  • Renal failure, especially chronic
    • Dialysis
  • Central nervous system disorders
    • Head trauma
    • Stroke
    • Severe encephalopathies
    • Hypothalamic tumor
  • Liver disorders
    • Severe acute hepatitis due to infection or toxins
    • Chronic liver failure
    • Reye's syndrome
    • HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, thrombocytopenia)
  • Chronic pancreatitis
  • Sepsis
  • Hypothermia
  • Malignant hyperthermia

Extrapancreatic Tumors

  • Mechanisms
  • Tumors associated with hypoglycemia
    • Benign and malignant mesothelioma
    • Neurofibroma
    • Fibrosarcoma
    • Rhabdomyosarcoma
    • Leiomyosarcoma
    • Liposarcoma
    • Sarcomatous dysembryoma
    • Reticulum cell sarcoma
    • Hemangiopericytoma
    • Spindle cell sarcoma
    • Pseudomyxoma peritonei (Rosenfeld syndrome)
    • Hepatoma (Nadler Wolfer Elliott syndrome)
    • Adrenal carcinoma (Anderson syndrome)
    • Non-islet pancreatic carcinoma
    • Hypernephroma
    • Adenocarcinomas of prostate, colon, bile duct, breast, stomach
    • Simple fibroma
    • Leukemia
    • Lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease
    • Multiple myeloma
    • Wilms' tumor
    • Apudoma
    • Carcinoid tumors
    • Pheochromocytoma (especially after removal)
    • Melanoma
    • Teratoma
    • Neuroblastoma
    • Paraganglioma

Hyperinsulinism

  • Hypoglycemia due to endogenous insulin
    • Congenital hyperinsulinism
      • Transient neonatal hyperinsulinism
        • Due to maternal factors
        • Due to infant factors
          • Intrauterine growth retardation
          • Perinatal asphyxia
          • Idiopathic transient hyperinsulinism
        • Iatrogenic
          • Malposition of umbilical catheter
      • Focal congenital hyperinsulinism
        • Paternal SUR1 mutation with clonal loss of heterozygosity of 11p15
        • Paternal Kir6.2 mutation with clonal loss of heterozygosity of 11p15
      • Diffuse congenital hyperinsulinism
        • Autosomal recessive forms
          • SUR1 mutations
          • Kir6.2 mutations
        • Autosomal dominant forms
          • Glucokinase gain-of-function mutations
          • Hyperammonemic hyperinsulinism (glutamate dehydrogenase gain-of-function mutations)
          • Loss of heterozygosity of 11p15 (Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome)
      • Donohue syndrome (leprechaunism)
    • Acquired tumors and hyperplasias of pancreatic beta cells
      • Islet cell adenoma
      • Islet cell carcinoma
      • Multiple endocrine adenomatosis syndrome
      • Pluriglandular syndrome of islet, pituitary, parathyroid hyperplasia
    • Autoimmune insulin syndrome
    • Reactive hypoglycemia (postprandial hypoglycemia syndrome)
    • Dumping syndrome
  • Drug induced hyperinsulinism
  • Hypoglycemia due to exogenous (injected) insulin
    • Insulin self-injected for treatment of diabetes
      • Excessive insulin dosage or accelerated absorption
      • Excessive activity
      • Inadequate food or delayed or decreased absorption
      • Alcohol
      • Drugs which contribute synergistically
      • Development of concurrent disease
      • Acquired endocrinopathies
      • Renal, cardiac or liver failure
    • Factitious & malicious insulin injection
      • Insulin self-injected surreptitiously (e.g., Munchausen syndrome)
      • Munchausen by proxy
    • Insulin tolerance test for pituitary or adrenergic response assessment
    • Treatment of hyperkalemia
    • Insulin potentiation treatment (cancer quackery)
    • Insulin-induced coma for depression or psychosis treatment (insulin shock)

Hormone Deficiencies

  • Cortisol
    • Addison's disease (acquired adrenal destruction)
    • ACTH deficiency
    • ACTH unresponsiveness
    • Congenital adrenal hypoplasia
    • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
  • Growth hormone
  • Epinephrine and catecholamines
    • Adrenomedullary unresponsiveness
  • Glucagon
  • Combined deficiencies
    • Congenital hypopituitarism (various causes)
    • Psychosocial deprivation syndrome (hypothalamic)
    • Thyroid hormone (depresses GH and ACTH)

Metabolic Defects

  • Defective glycogenolysis or glycogen accumulation
    • Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (glycogenosis type I, von Gierke dis)
    • Pseudoglycogenosis type I
    • Amylo-1,6-glucosidase (debrancher) deficiency (glycogenosis type III)
    • Hepatic phosphorylase deficiency (glycogenosis type VI)
    • Hepatic phosphorylase kinase deficiency (glycogenosis type IXb)
    • Glycogen synthase deficiency (glycogenosis type 0)
  • Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase deficiency (galactosemia)
  • Defects of gluconeogenesis or substrate supply
  • Defects of mitochondrial beta-oxidation and fatty acid metabolism
    • Systemic carnitine deficiencies
      • Enzyme deficiencies
      • Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I
      • Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II
      • Carnitine acyltransferase
    • Butyryl CoA dehydrogenase
    • Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA lyase
    • Methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase
    • Medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase
    • Short chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase
    • Long chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase
    • Multiple acyl CoA dehydrogenase (glutaric aciduria type II)
    • Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase
    • Short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase
    • Carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase
  • Enoyl CoA hydratase
  • Ketothiolase
  • Succinyl CoA:acetoacetate transferase
  • Defects of amino acid metabolism
  • Miscellaneous metabolic defects
    • Defective type I glucose transporter in brain
    • Methylglutaconic aciduria
    • Sucrosuria
    • Glycerol intolerance
    • Rare variants of galactose intolerance
    • Other rare or poorly defined congenital metabolic defects

Drugs And Toxic substances

Idiopathic And Miscellaneous

  • Ketotic hypoglycemia
    • Identifiable hormone and enzyme deficiencies
  • Idiopathic
    • Idiopathic hypoglycemias, etiologies undetermined
    • Autoimmune
    • Antibodies to insulin
    • Antibodies to insulin receptor
    • Stimulating antibodies to islet cells
    • Thyrotoxicosis (extremely rare)
    • Infection
      • Mumps
      • Varicella
      • Pertussis
      • Measles
      • Malaria
  • Extreme exercise
  • Artifactual
    • In vitro glucose consumption after blood drawing
    • Leukemic WBC's may consume glucose in vitro
    • Polycythemia of infancy (RBCs consume glucose in vitro)
    • Inaccuracies of blood drop strips
    • Inherent variation inaccuracy at low end
    • Inadequate drop
    • Excessive wiping
    • Short time interval

Reactive, Functional, Postprandial, Etc.

  • Prediabetes (both categories controversial & may not be valid)
    • Juvenile diabetes (rare, anecdotal reports)
    • Adult onset diabetes (in early stages)
  • After intravenous glucose load
  • Abrupt discontinuation of parenteral nutrition or i.v. glucose
  • After exchange transfusion with ACD preserved blood in neonate
  • Alimentary (rapid jejunal emptying with exaggerated insulin response)
  • Post fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux
  • Post gastrectomy dumping syndrome
  • Short bowel syndrome
  • Idiopathic gastrointestinal motility disturbance
  • Alternate day growth hormone therapy
  • Idiopathic reactive or postprandial hypoglycemia (hypoglycemia documented at time of symptoms: rare)
  • Idiopathic postprandial syndrome (hypoglycemia never documented: common)
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Causes_of_hypoglycemia". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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