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Co-amoxiclav



Co-amoxiclav
Combination of
Amoxicillin Penicillin antibiotic
Potassium clavulanate Beta-lactamase inhibitor
Identifiers
CAS number 74469-00-4
ATC code J01CR02
PubChem 6435924
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

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Legal status
Routes  ?

Co-amoxiclav is the British Approved Name, in the British Pharmacopoeia, for the combination antibiotic containing Amoxicillin (as either trihydate or the sodium salt) and Clavulanic acid (as Potassium clavulanate). This name, unlike co-trimoxazole, has not been widely adopted internationally and the combination product is usually referred to by various names such as amoxicillin with clavulanic acid or amoxicillin+clavulanate or simply by the trade name. Co-amoxiclav is currently marketed under various trade names including Augmentin (GlaxoSmithKline formerly Beecham), The combination of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotic; with clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor; results in an antibiotic with an increased spectrum of action and restored efficacy against β-lactamase producing amoxicillin-resistant bacteria.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Dosage

The proportions of the two constituents are expressed as x/y where x and y are the strengths in milligrams of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid respectively. However, the branded products indicate their strengths as the quantity of amoxicillin, hence co-amoxiclav 250/125 ≡ Augmentin 250 and contains 250 mg of amoxicillin with 125 mg of clavulanic acid. [1] [2] [3] [4]

Standard adult dosages for respiratory tract, urinary, abdominal and dental infections as well as cellulitis and animal bites is co-amoxiclav 250/125 (one tablet Augmentin 250) taken every 8 hours, which may be doubled in severe infections (either as two tablets at a time of Augmentin 250, or a single tablet of co-amoxiclav 500/125 ≡ Augmentin 500). In the US, Augmentin XR (co-amoxiclav 1000/62.5) is marketed for use in community acquired pneumonia with two tablets taken twice a day (giving 4000 mg total daily dose of amoxicillin).

Dosages for children are also given three times a day using suspensions containing co-amoxiclav 250/62 in each 5 mL (Augmentin '250/62 SF') for those between the ages of 6 - 12 years and co-amoxiclav 125/31 (Augmentin '125/31 SF') for those between the ages of 1 - 6 years. A more concentrated solution, co-amoxiclav 400/57 (Augmentin '400/57 SF'), may be administered more conveniently just twice daily to children from as young as 2 months of age; quantities are based on body weight with 2.5 mL from the age of 2 years and 5 mL after the age of 6 years.

Side effects

Amongst the possible side-effects of this medication are diarrhea, vomiting and a few other conditions. These do not usually require medical attention. However, if the patient experiences an allergic reaction to the medication, jaundice, fever or severe diarrhea, it is necessary to contact a doctor immediately. As with all antimicrobial agents, pseudomembranous colitis has been associated with the use of amoxicillin-clavulanate. Amoxicillin is a member of the penicillin family of antibiotics, and therefore should not be taken by patients allergic to penicillin.

Veterinary use

The amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination is also used in the treatment of, amongst other infections, periodontitis in dogs and skin infections in cats. The preparation for veterinary use is commonly marketed under the trade names Clavaseptin, and Clavamox (or Synulox in Europe).

Other Notes

Liquid co-amoxiclav must be refrigerated to maintain effectiveness. Many patients find the taste of Augmentin extremely unpleasant.

References

  1. ^ http://us.gsk.com/products/assets/us_augmentin.pdf
  2. ^ http://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/amoxclav_ids.htm
  3. ^ http://www.druglib.com/druginfo/augmentin/abstracts/
  4. ^ http://www.drugs.com/augmentin.html
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Co-amoxiclav". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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