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Dexmedetomidine



Dexmedetomidine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
4-[1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-3H-imidazole
Identifiers
CAS number 113775-47-6
ATC code N05CM18
PubChem 68602
DrugBank APRD00578
Chemical data
Formula C13H16N2 
Mol. mass 200.28 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Protein binding 94%
Metabolism  ?
Half life 2 hours
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

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Legal status
Routes  ?

Dexmedetomidine is a sedative medication used by intensive care units and anesthesiologists. It is relatively unique in its ability to provide sedation without causing respiratory depression. Like clonidine, its mechanism of action is agonism of alpha-2 receptors in certain parts of the brain.[1]

Additional recommended knowledge

Dexmedetomidine has sedative, analgesic, sympatholytic, and anxiolytic effects that blunt many of the cardiovascular responses in the perioperative period. It reduces the volatile anesthetic, sedative and analgesic requirements of the patient without causing significant respiratory depression.[2]

Recent research has suggested dexmedetomidine to be an effective treatment for the dangerous cardiovascular symptoms of cocaine intoxication and overdose.[3] It also seemed to be superior to lorazepam for ventilated patients in the intensive care unit.[4]


References

  1. ^ Cormack JR, Orme RM, Costello TG. The role of alpha2-agonists in neurosurgery. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 2005 May;12(4):375-8.
  2. ^ Paris A, Tonner PH. Dexmedetomidine in anaesthesia. Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology. 2005 Aug;18(4):412-8.
  3. ^ Menon DV, Wang Z, Fadel PJ, Arbique D, Leonard D, Li JL, Victor RG, Vongpatanasin W. "Central sympatholysis as a novel countermeasure for cocaine-induced sympathetic activation and vasoconstriction in humans". J Am Coll Cardiol 2007; 50(7): 626-33. PMID 17692748
  4. ^ Pandharipande PP, Pun BT, Herr DL, et.al. "Effect of sedation with dexmedetomidine vs lorazepam on acute brain dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients: the MENDS randomized controlled trial." JAMA 2007; 298(22): 2644-53. PMID 18073360
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Dexmedetomidine". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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