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Haplogroup E3b (Y-DNA)

  In human genetics, Haplogroup E3b (M35) (previously called Hg21) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup with a distribution spreading from Africa around the Mediterranean into Europe and the Middle East. It is defined by the Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations M215 and M35, which are almost always found together.

E3 (defined by SNPs P2, DYS391p) is a branch of the African haplogroup E (defined by SNPs SRY4064 (SRY8299 or M40), M96, P29). The other main branch of E3 is E3a, defined by SNPs M2 (SY81) (DYS271), M180, P1, P46.

E3b is believed to have first appeared in the Horn of Africa approximately 26,000 years ago and dispersed to the Middle East during the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods. From there, it traveled north and west with the expansion of Neolithic agriculturalists.

Outside of East Africa, its two most prevalent clades are:


E-M78 (E3b1a)

This haplogroup arose ca. 18.6 kya after the spread of E3b1* (E-M35) from the Horn of Africa to Egypt, and has been further divided into subclades by Fulvio Cruciani, on the basis of the following SNP mutations...

  • E-V12* The oldest sub-clade, found mainly in Southern Egyptians (arose ca. 15.2 kya). Formerly comprised a few of Cruciani's delta cluster.
  • E-V13* The most prevalent clade in Europe, having first arose in West Asia ca. 11.5 kya, and equivalent with Cruciani's alpha cluster.
  • E-V22* Prevalent in East Africa and Egypt, with higher microsatellite variance (0.35 vs. 0.46, respectively) in Egypt, comprising most of those classified in Cruciani's earlier delta cluster.
  • E-V32* Prevalent in East Africa, particularly among Somalis and Borana Oromos, formerly defined as the gamma cluster (arose ca. 8.5 kya).

E-M81 (E3b1b, formally E3b2)

  • E-M81 (E3b2; referred to as a "Berber marker"), which reaches frequencies of up to 80% in North Africa. It is thought of primarily as a Berber haplogroup, and is most common throughout the Maghreb region of North Africa and is absent in Europe, except for the Iberian peninsula and Sicily. It is considered to have entered the European continent as a result of Islamic domination over these regions of Southern Europe.But an earlier arrival may have happened through the late mesolithic Cardium Pottery [1]

See also

Human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups

Y-most recent common ancestor


    • Arredi et al. (2004) A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa
    • Cruciani et al. (2004) Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa
    • Cruciani et al. (2006) Molecular Dissection of the Y Chromosome Haplogroup E-M78 (E3b1a): A Posteriori Evaluation of a Microsatellite-Network-Based Approach Through Six New Biallelic Markers
    • Cruciani et al. (2007) Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12
    • Luis et al. (2004) The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations
    • Rosser et al. (2000) Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe Is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language
    • Semino et al. (2004) Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area
    This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Haplogroup_E3b_(Y-DNA)". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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