My watch list  

Haplogroup F (Y-DNA)

In human genetics, Haplogroup F (defining mutations M89, P14, and M213) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. This haplogroup and its subclades contain more than 90% of the world's extant male population, including almost everyone outside of Africa, except for Tibet, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Japan, Polynesia, and communities of indigenous Australians, while also including many men within those regions.



This ancient haplogroup may have first appeared in North Africa some 45,000 years before present. It is sometimes believed to represent a "second-wave" of expansion out of Africa. However, the location of this lineage's first expansion and rise to dominance appears to have been in India or somewhere close to it within South Asia or the Middle East; all of Haplogroup F's descendant haplogroups also show a pattern of radiation from South Asia (haplogroups H and K) or the Middle East (haplogroups G and IJ).

Several lineages derived from Haplogroup F appear to have migrated into Africa from a homeland in Southwest Asia sometime during prehistory. Y-chromosome haplogroups associated with this hypothetical "Back to Africa" migration include J, K2, and R1b. The occurrence of haplogroups J, K2, and R1b among precolonial populations of Africa is highly correlated with the distribution of languages of the Afro-Asiatic phylum. However, certain subclades of Haplogroup E, which commonly occurs among all modern populations of Africa, are also closely associated with the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages, both within Africa and in Southwest Asia, which many scholars have taken to support the hypothesis of a Northeast African origin of the Afro-Asiatic languages and subsequent colonization of Southwest Asia by Haplogroup E3b-bearing proto-Semites. Under the scenario of an African origin of Afro-Asiatic languages, the occurrence of Eurasian Y-chromosome haplogroups J, K, and R among Afro-Asiatic-speaking populations of North Africa and East Africa would imply Eurasian immigration or gene flow into northern Africa, accompanied by the loss of the Eurasians' ancestral language and assimilation into the indigenous Afro-Asiatic cultures.

Derivative haplogroups

Haplogroup F is an ancestral haplogroup to Y-chromosome haplogroups G (M201), H (M52), I (M170), J (12f2.1), and K (M9) along with K's descendant haplogroups (L, M, N, O, P, Q, and R).

Besides the major clades G, H, IJ, and K, other patrilines derived from Haplogroup F-M89 can still be detected at a very low frequency among many populations of the southern fringe of Eurasia and Oceania, from Portugal in the west to Korea and the Malay Archipelago in the east. India, Korea, and the Ailao Mountains of Yunnan Province in southwestern China appear to be the only regions where such lineages, which are grouped for convenience as Haplogroup F*, comprise a significant portion of the Y-chromosome diversity of the modern populations. Haplogroup F* Y-chromosomes have been found to be particularly common among the Kucong or Yellow Lahu, a group of hunter-gatherers who live in the Ailao Mountains of Yunnan.[1] Korean F* probably reflects a rare brother clade of haplogroups G, H, IJ, and K that may have experienced a geographically limited expansion during historical times, as such Haplogroup F* Y-chromosomes have not been found among the neighboring Japanese.


The rare clades F1 (P91, P104) and F2 (M427, M428) have been identified among some of the Haplogroup F-M89 Y-chromosomes that formerly were classified as F*. The extent of the distribution of haplogroups F1 and F2 is not yet known for certain, but these two clades, like F*, seem to occur only at a very low frequency among modern human populations and primarily only among populations of India.

The subclades of Haplogroup F with their defining mutation(s), according to the 2006 ISOGG tree (abbreviated for clarity to a maximum of five steps away from the root of Haplogroup F):

  • F (P14, M89, M213)
    • F*
    • F1 (P91, P104)
    • F2 (M427, M428)
    • G (M201) Most common today in some peoples of the Caucasus; also found at a low frequency throughout Europe, the Near East, Central Asia, and Southern Asia
      • G*
      • G1 (M285, M342)
        • G1*
        • G1a (P20)
      • G2 (P15)
        • G2*
        • G2a (P16)
          • G2a*
          • G2a1 (P17, P18)
        • G2b (M286)
      • G3 (M287)
      • G4
      • G5 (M377) Almost exclusively found in low numbers among Ashkenazi Jews
    • H (M69) Generally limited to South Asia; typical of Central, East, and South Indian population as well as the Roma of Europe
      • H*
      • H1 (M52)
        • H1*
        • H1a (M82)
          • H1a*
          • H1a1 (M36, M197)
          • H1a2 (M97)
          • H1a3 (M39, M138)
        • H1b (M370)
      • H2 (Apt)
    • IJ (S2, S22)
      • I (M170, M258, P19)
        • I*
        • I1 (P38)
          • I1*
          • I1a (M253, M307, P30, P40) Typical of populations of Scandinavia and Northwest Europe, with a moderate distribution throughout Europe
            • I1a*
            • I1a1 (M227)
            • I1a2 (M21)
            • I1a3 (M72)
          • I1b (S31)
            • I1b*
            • I1b1 (P37.2) Typical of populations of the Balkans and Sardinia, with a moderate distribution throughout Eastern Europe and a very sparse distribution in Southwest Europe
            • I1b2 (S23, S30, S32, S33) Occurs at a moderate frequency among populations of Northwest Europe
      • J (12f2.1, M304, S6, S34, S35)
        • J*
        • J1 (M267) Typical of populations of the Levant, Arabia, and Semitic-speaking populations of North Africa and East Africa, with a moderate distribution throughout Southwest Asia
          • J1*
          • J1a (M62)
          • J1b (M365)
          • J1c (M367, M368)
          • J1d (M369)
          • J1e (M390)
        • J2 (M172) Typical of populations of Southern Europe, Turkey, northern Iraq, Iran, and the Caucasus, with a moderate distribution throughout Southwest Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, and North Africa
          • J2*
          • J2a (M410)
            • J2a*
            • J2a1 (DYS413≤18)
            • J2a2 (M340)
          • J2b (M12, M314, M221)
            • J2b*
            • J2b1 (M102) Mainly found in the Balkans, Greece, and Italy (possibly from Ancient Greeks)
    • K (M9) Typical of populations of northern Eurasia, eastern Eurasia, Melanesia, and the Americas, with a moderate distribution throughout Southwest Asia, northern Africa, and Oceania
      • K*
      • K1 (M353, M387)
        • K1*
        • K1a (SRY9138 (M177))
      • K2 (M70, M184, M193, M272) Found in a significant minority of Arabs, Ethiopians, Somalians, and Fulbe; also present at low frequency throughout South Asia, Southwest Asia, North Africa, and Southern Europe
        • K2*
        • K2a (M320)
      • K3 (M147)
      • K4 (P60)
      • K5 (M230) Typical of populations of the highlands of New Guinea; also found at lower frequencies in adjacent parts of Indonesia and Melanesia
        • K5*
        • K5a (M254)
          • K5a*
          • K5a1 (M226)
      • K6 (P79)
      • K7 (P117)
      • L (M11, M20, M22, M61, M185, M295) Typical of populations of Pakistan
        • L*
        • L1 (M27, M76) Typical of Dravidian castes of India and Sri Lanka, with a moderate distribution among Indo-Iranian peoples of South Asia
        • L2 (M317) Found at low frequency among populations of Central Asia, Southwest Asia, and Southern Europe
          • L2*
          • L2a (M274)
          • L2b (M349)
        • L3 (M357) Frequently found among Burusho and Pashtuns, with a moderate distribution among the general Pakistani population
          • L3*
          • L3a (PK3) Found among Kalash
      • M (M4, M5, M106, M186, M189, P35) Typical of Papuan peoples
        • M*
        • M1 (P34)
          • M1*
          • M1a (P51)
        • M2 (P87)
          • M2*
          • M2a (M104 (P22))
            • M2a*
            • M2a1 (M16)
            • M2a2 (M83)
      • NO (M214)
        • NO*
        • N (LLY22g, M231)
          • N*
          • N1 (M128) Found at a low frequency among Manchu, Sibe, Manchurian Evenks, Koreans, and Turkic peoples
          • N2 (P43) Typical of Northern Samoyedic peoples; also found at low to moderate frequency among some other Uralic peoples, Turkic peoples, Mongolic peoples, Tungusic peoples, and Eskimos
            • N2*
            • N2a (P63)
          • N3 (Tat (M46)) Typical of the Sakha and Uralic peoples, with a moderate distribution throughout North Eurasia
            • N3*
            • N3a (M178)
        • O (M175)
          • O*
          • O1 (MSY2.2) Typical of Austronesians, southern Han Chinese, and Tai-Kadai peoples
            • O1*
            • O1a (M119)
          • O2 (P31, M268)
            • O2*
            • O2a (M95) Typical of Austro-Asiatic peoples, Tai-Kadai peoples, Malays, and Indonesians
            • O2b (SRY465 (M176)) Typical of Koreans, Japanese, and Ryukyuans
          • O3 (M122) Typical of populations of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Austronesian populations of Oceania, with a moderate distribution in Central Asia
            • O3*
            • O3a (M324)
      • P (92R7, M45, M74, (N12), P27)
        • P*
        • Q (M242, MEH2, P36)
          • Q*
          • Q1 (M120, N14 (M265))
            • Q1*
            • Q1a (M378)
          • Q2 (M25, M143)
          • Q3 (M3) Typical of indigenous peoples of the Americas
            • Q3*
            • Q3a (M19)
            • Q3b (M194)
            • Q3c (M199)
          • Q4 (P48)
          • Q5 (M323)
          • Q6 (M346)
        • R (M207 (UTY2), M306 (S1), S4, S8, S9)
          • R*
          • R1 (M173)
            • R1*
            • R1a (SRY10831.2 (SRY1532)) Typical of populations of Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia, with a moderate distribution in Western Europe, Southwest Asia, and southern Siberia
            • R1b (M343) Typical of populations of Western Europe, with a moderate distribution throughout Eurasia and in parts of Africa
          • R2 (M124) Typical of populations of South Asia, with a moderate distribution in Central Asia and the Caucasus


  1. ^ Combining Genetics and Population History in the Study of Ethnic Diversity in the People's Republic of China, M. L. Black, C. A. Wise, W. Wang, A. H. Bittles, Human Biology 2006 Jun;78(3):277-93

Human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups

Y-most recent common ancestor
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Haplogroup_F_(Y-DNA)". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
Your browser is not current. Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 does not support some functions on Chemie.DE