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Haplogroup E (Y-DNA)

In human genetics, Haplogroup E (M96) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

This haplogroup is found in Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. Haplogroup E is found in Africa, Asia and Europe and it is divided into three clades: E1 and E2 are found exclusively in Africa, while E3 is observed in Africa, Europe and western Asia. E3 is further divided into E3a and E3b, but only E3b is observed in significant frequency in Europe and western Asia in addition to Africa. E3b is estimated to be 25 600 years old. [1] Most Sub-Saharan Africans belong to E(xE3b), while most non-Africans belong to the E3b clade of the E haplogroup.”



Subbranches include E1, E2, E3a (M2) and E3b (M35).


E1 (M33) headed for West Africa and today it is mainly present in the region of Mali.


E2 (M75) is present both in West and East Africa.


E3, by far the most frequent subbranch of E, diverged into two main subbranches E3a (M2) and E3b (M35) approximately 24-27 000 years ago (Cruciani et al. 2004). The bearers of E3a populated the coastal region of West Africa, where they largely mixed with indigenous Pygmy populations and gave birth to modern West Africans speaking languages of the Niger-Congo family. As a result of the historical migrations of the agricultural Bantu-speaking cultures that started ca. 3000 BC, E3a is the most frequent Y-haplogroup in Sub-Saharan Africa today. It is also the most common Y-haplogroup among African American men.

Within eastern Africa, the haplogroup appears to be restricted to Ethiopia but E-M34 chromosomes have been found in a large majority of the populations from the Near East. E-M34 chromosomes from Ethiopia show lower variances than those from the Near East and appear closely related in the E-M34 network. Thus, it is assumed that E-M34 chromosomes were introduced into Ethiopia from the Near East.[2]

In populations of Europe, particularly among those that reside near the Mediterranean, Haplogroup E3b is believed to represent ancient genetic influence from Near East, mediated by West Asian populations entering Europe during the Neolithic revolution (the spread of agriculture from Asia Minor).[3] The subbranch E3b1 is present at high frequencies among the Greeks, Albanians, and South Italians (up to 25%), but its percentage gradually falls below 10% in the Carpathian basin and Iberia, and is negligible in other parts of Europe. Some E3b is instead explained by more recent genetic influence from North Africa.


  1. ^ Fulvio Cruciani et al, Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa, Am. J. Hum. Genet., p. 74
  2. ^ Cruciani, 2004
  3. ^ Cruciani, 2004
  • B. Arredi et al.: A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa. American Journal Of Human Genetics, 2004, p. 338–345
  • F. Cruciani et al.: A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal Of Human Genetics, 2002, p. 1197–1214
  • F. Cruciani et al.: Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa. American Journal Of Human Genetics, 2004, p. 1014–1022
  • F. Cruciani et al.: Molecular Dissection of the Y Chromosome Haplogroup M-78
  • J. R. Luis et al.: The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations. American Journal Of Human Genetics, 2004, p. 523-544
  • J. J. Sanchez et al.: High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males. European Journal of Human Genetics, 2005, p. 856–86
  • A. Salas et al.: The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape. American Journal Of Human Genetics, 2002, p. 1082–1111
  • O. Semino et al.: Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area. American Journal of Human Genetics, 2004, p. 1023-1034
  • E. T. Wood et al.: Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes. European Journal of Human Genetics, 2005, p. 867–876

Human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups

Y-most recent common ancestor
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Haplogroup_E_(Y-DNA)". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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