My watch list
my.chemeurope.com  
Login  

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup



    In human genetics, a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. These haplogroups have led some researchers to trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the subsequent spread across the globe.

Known haplogroups are assigned the following letter codes: A, B, C, CZ, D, E, F, G, H, pre-HV, HV, I, J, pre-JT, JT, K, L0, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6, L7, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, UK, V, W, X, Y, and Z.

The woman at the root of all these groups was the most recent common matrilineal (female-lineage) ancestor of all living humans. She is commonly called Mitochondrial Eve.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Evolutionary relationship

Precise evolutionary relationships between human mitochondrial haplogroups are subject to academic debate.

L0

  • Haplogroup L0
    • Haplogroup L0a [1]
      • Haplogroup L0a1
      • Haplogroup L0a2
    • Haplogroup L0d
    • Haplogroup L0f [2]
    • Haplogroup L0k [3]

L1 and its descendants

Descendants of haplogroup L3

Descendants of haplogroup M*

  • Haplogroup M1 [21]
    • Haplogroup M1a
  • Haplogroup M2 [22]
  • Haplogroup M3 [23]
  • Haplogroup M4 [24]
  • Haplogroup M5 [25]
  • Haplogroup M6 [26]
  • Haplogroup M7 [27]
  • Haplogroup M8 [28]
  • Haplogroup M9 [29]
  • Haplogroup M10 [30]
  • Haplogroup M11 [31]
  • Haplogroup M12 [32]
  • Haplogroup M21 [33]
  • Haplogroup M27 [34]
  • Haplogroup M28 [35]
  • Haplogroup M29 [36]
  • Haplogroup M31 [37]
  • Haplogroup M32 [38]
  • Haplogroup M33 [39]
  • Haplogroup M34 [40]
  • Haplogroup M35 [41]
  • Haplogroup M39 [42]
  • Haplogroup M40 [43]
  • Haplogroup CZ
  • Haplogroup D
  • Haplogroup E
  • Haplogroup G [46]
  • Haplogroup Q [47]

Descendants of haplogroup N*

Descendants of haplogroup R

  • Haplogroup P [62]
  • Haplogroup UK
    • Haplogroup U [63]
      • Haplogroup K
        • Haplogroup K1 [64]
        • Haplogroup K2 [65]
      • Haplogroup U1
        • Haplogroup U1a
        • Haplogroup U1b
      • Haplogroup U2
        • Haplogroup U2e
      • Haplogroup U3
      • Haplogroup U4
      • Haplogroup U5
        • Haplogroup U5a
        • Haplogroup U5a*
        • Haplogroup U5a1
        • Haplogroup U5a1*
        • Haplogroup U5a1a
        • Haplogroup U5b
        • Haplogroup U5b*
          • Haplogroup U5b1
        • Haplogroup U5b2
      • Haplogroup U6
        • Haplogroup U6a*
        • Haplogroup U6a1
        • Haplogroup U6b
      • Haplogroup U7
      • Haplogroup U8
      • Haplogroup pre-HV
        • Haplogroup pre-HV1
        • Haplogroup pre-HV2
        • Haplogroup HV [66]
          • Haplogroup HV*
          • Haplogroup HV1
          • Haplogroup H
            • Haplogroup H*
            • Haplogroup H1 [67]
              • Haplogroup H1*
              • Haplogroup H1a
                • Haplogroup H1a1
              • Haplogroup H1b
              • Haplogroup H1f
            • Haplogroup H2 [68]
              • Haplogroup H2*
              • Haplogroup H2a
                • Haplogroup H2a1
              • Haplogroup H2b
            • Haplogroup H3 [69]
            • Haplogroup H4 [70]
              • Haplogroup H4a
            • Haplogroup H5 [71]
              • Haplogroup H5a
                • Haplogroup H5a1
            • Haplogroup H6 [72]
              • Haplogroup H6a
                • Haplogroup H6a1
              • Haplogroup H6b
            • Haplogroup H7 [73]
            • Haplogroup H8 [74]
            • Haplogroup H9 [75]
            • Haplogroup H10 [76]
            • Haplogroup H11 [77]
              • Haplogroup H11a
            • Haplogroup H12 [78]
            • Haplogroup H13 [79]
            • Haplogroup H14 [80]
            • Haplogroup H15 [81]
            • Haplogroup H16 [82]
            • Haplogroup H21 [83]
          • Haplogroup V [84]

Table form

Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  most recent common mt-ancestor    
L0   L1  
L2 L3   L4 L5 L6 L7
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A I O   R   S W X Y
C Z B F pre-HV   pre-JT P  UK
HV JT U K
H V J T

Other forms

For a graphical depiction of haplogroup branching, see Vincent Macaulay's mtDNA haplogroup skeleton. [85]

For information on the mutations which characterize each haplogroup, see the table of mtDNA haplogroup motifs. [86]

See also

References

  • ^  Mitochondrial haplogroup skeleton, by Vincent Macaulay
  • ^  Mitochondrial haplogroup motifs, by Vincent Macaulay
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Human_mitochondrial_DNA_haplogroup". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
Your browser is not current. Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 does not support some functions on Chemie.DE