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Isotopes of zirconium



Naturally-occurring zirconium (Zr) is composed of four stable isotopes, and one extremely long-lived radioisotope (96Zr), which decays via double beta decay with the observed half-life of 2.0×1019 years [1]; it can also undergo single beta decay which is not yet observed, but the theoretically predicted value of T½ is 2.4×1020 years [2]. The second most stable radioisotope is 93Zr which has a half-life of 1.53 million years. Eighteen other radioisotopes have been observed. Most of these have half-lives that are less than a day except for 95Zr (64.02 days), 88Zr (63.4 days), and 89Zr (78.41 hours). The primary decay mode is electron capture for isotopes lighter than 92Zr, and the primary mode for heavier isotopes is beta decay.
Standard atomic mass: 91.224(2) u

Additional recommended knowledge

Table

nuclide
symbol
Z(p) N(n)  
isotopic mass (u)
 
half-life nuclear
spin
representative
isotopic
composition
(mole fraction)
range of natural
variation
(mole fraction)
excitation energy
78Zr 40 38 77.95523(54)# 50# ms [>170 ns] 0+
79Zr 40 39 78.94916(43)# 56(30) ms 5/2+#
80Zr 40 40 79.9404(16) 4.6(6) s 0+
81Zr 40 41 80.93721(18) 5.5(4) s (3/2-)#
82Zr 40 42 81.93109(24)# 32(5) s 0+
83Zr 40 43 82.92865(10) 41.6(24) s (1/2-)#
84Zr 40 44 83.92325(21)# 25.9(7) min 0+
85Zr 40 45 84.92147(11) 7.86(4) min 7/2+
85mZr 292.2(3) keV 10.9(3) s (1/2-)
86Zr 40 46 85.91647(3) 16.5(1) h 0+
87Zr 40 47 86.914816(9) 1.68(1) h (9/2)+
87mZr 335.84(19) keV 14.0(2) s (1/2)-
88Zr 40 48 87.910227(11) 83.4(3) d 0+
89Zr 40 49 88.908890(4) 78.41(12) h 9/2+
89mZr 587.82(10) keV 4.161(17) min 1/2-
90Zr 40 50 89.9047044(25) STABLE 0+ 0.5145(40)
90m1Zr 2319.000(10) keV 809.2(20) ms 5-
90m2Zr 3589.419(16) keV 131(4) ns 8+
91Zr 40 51 90.9056458(25) STABLE 5/2+ 0.1122(5)
91mZr 3167.3(4) keV 4.35(14) µs (21/2+)
92Zr 40 52 91.9050408(25) STABLE 0+ 0.1715(8)
93Zr 40 53 92.9064760(25) 1.53(10)E+6 a 5/2+
94Zr 40 54 93.9063152(26) STABLE [>1.1E+17 a]] 0+ 0.1738(28)
95Zr 40 55 94.9080426(26) 64.032(6) d 5/2+
96Zr 40 56 95.9082734(30) 20(4)E+18 a 0+ 0.0280(9)
97Zr 40 57 96.9109531(30) 16.744(11) h 1/2+
98Zr 40 58 97.912735(21) 30.7(4) s 0+
99Zr 40 59 98.916512(22) 2.1(1) s 1/2+
100Zr 40 60 99.91776(4) 7.1(4) s 0+
101Zr 40 61 100.92114(3) 2.3(1) s 3/2+
102Zr 40 62 101.92298(5) 2.9(2) s 0+
103Zr 40 63 102.92660(12) 1.3(1) s (5/2-)
104Zr 40 64 103.92878(43)# 1.2(3) s 0+
105Zr 40 65 104.93305(43)# 0.6(1) s
106Zr 40 66 105.93591(54)# 200# ms [>300 ns] 0+
107Zr 40 67 106.94075(32)# 150# ms [>300 ns]
108Zr 40 68 107.94396(64)# 80# ms [>300 ns] 0+
109Zr 40 69 108.94924(54)# 60# ms [>300 ns]
110Zr 40 70 109.95287(86)# 30# ms [>300 ns] 0+

Notes

  • Geologically exceptional samples are known in which the isotopic composition lies outside the reported range. The uncertainty in the atomic mass may exceed the stated value for such specimens.
  • Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
  • Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.

References

  • Isotope masses from Ame2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation by G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon in Nuclear Physics A729 (2003).
  • Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl. Chem. Vol. 75, No. 6, pp. 683-800, (2003) and Atomic Weights Revised (2005).
  • Half-life, spin, and isomer data selected from these sources. Editing notes on this article's talk page.
    • Audi, Bersillon, Blachot, Wapstra. The Nubase2003 evaluation of nuclear and decay properties, Nuc. Phys. A 729, pp. 3-128 (2003).
    • National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Information extracted from the NuDat 2.1 database (retrieved Sept. 2005).
    • David R. Lide (ed.), Norman E. Holden in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition, online version. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005). Section 11, Table of the Isotopes.


Isotopes of yttrium Isotopes of zirconium Isotopes of niobium
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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Isotopes_of_zirconium". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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