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Lithium perchlorate



Lithium perchlorate
IUPAC name Lithium perchlorate
Other names Perchloric acid, lithium salt
Identifiers
CAS number 7791-03-9
Properties
Molecular formula LiClO4
Molar mass 106.39 g/mol
Appearance white crystals
Density 2.43 g/cm3, solid
Melting point

236 °C

Boiling point

430 °C (with decomp.)

Solubility in water 60 g/100 mL
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
Main hazards Oxdizer
Irritatant
Related Compounds
Other cations Caesium perchlorate; potassium perchlorate
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Lithium perchlorate is the chemical compound with the formula LiClO4. This white crystalline salt is noteworthy for its high solubility in many solvents. It exists both in anhydrous form and as a trihydrate.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Uses

Lithium perchlorate is used as a source of oxygen in some chemical oxygen generators. It decomposes at about 400 °C, yielding lithium chloride and oxygen. It has both the highest weight to oxygen and oxygen to volume ratio of all perchlorates, which makes it especially advantageous in aerospace applications.

LiClO4 is highly soluble in organic solvents, even diethyl ether. Such solutions are employed in the Diels-Alder reactions, where it is proposed that the Lewis acidic Li+ binds to substituents on the diene, thereby accelerating the reaction.[1]

Lithium perchlorate is also extensively used as an electrolyte in lithium batteries, as it does not undergo oxidization on the anode.

Production

Lithium perchlorate can be manufactured by reaction of sodium perchlorate with lithium chloride. It can be also prepared by electrolysis of lithium chlorate at 200 mA/cm² at temperatures above 20 °C.[citation needed]

Safety

Perchlorates often give explosive mixtures with organic compounds.

References

  1. ^ Charette, A. B. "Lithium Perchlorate" in Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis (Ed: L. Paquette) 2004, J. Wiley & Sons, New York. DOI: 10.1002/047084289.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Lithium_perchlorate". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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