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Manganese(VII) oxide

Manganese(VII) oxide
IUPAC name Manganese(VII) oxide
Other names Manganic oxide
dimanganese heptoxide
CAS number 12057-92-0
SMILES O=(O=)(O=)MnOMn(=O)(=O)=O
Molecular formula Mn2O7
Molar mass 221.87 g/mol
Appearance dark red oil (room temp.)
Density 2.79 g/cm3
Melting point

5.9 °C

Boiling point

explodes on heating
sublimes at −10 °C

Solubility in water dec.
Crystal structure monoclinic
Main hazards explosive, strong oxidizer
Related Compounds
Related compounds Re2O7
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Manganese(VII) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula Mn2O7. This volatile liquid is highly reactive and more often discussed than observed or intentionally prepared. It is a dangerous oxidizer that was first described in 1860.[1]

Key properties

The crystalline compound is red. It is soluble in CCl4, melts at only 5.9 °C, and sublimes at −10 °C. These properties indicate a nonpolar molecular species, which is confirmed by its structure. The molecules consist of a pair of tetrahedra that share a common vertex. The vertices are occupied by oxygen atoms and at the centers of the tetrahedra are the Mn(VII) centers. The connectivity is indicated by the formula O3Mn-O-MnO3. The terminal Mn-O distances are 1.585 Å and the bridging oxygen is 1.77 Å distant from the two Mn atoms. The Mn-O-Mn angle is 120.7°.[2]

Pyrosulfate, pyrophosphate, and dichromate adopt structures similar to that of Mn2O7. Probably the most similar main group species is Cl2O7. Focusing on comparisons within the transition metal series, Tc2O7 and Mn2O7 are structurally similar but the Tc-O-Tc angle is 180°. Re2O7 is not molecular but consists of crosslinked Re centers with both tetrahedral and octahedral sites.[3]

One distinction of Mn2O7 is that it is charge-neutral. Molecular oxides that are neutral or cationic are often oxidants.

Synthesis and reactions

Mn2O7 arises as a dark red oil by the addition of H2SO4 to KMnO4. The reaction initially produces permanganic acid, HMnO4 (also described with the formula HOMnO3). Permanganic acid spontaneously loses water to form its anhydride, Mn2O7.

2 KMnO4 + 2 H2SO4 → Mn2O7 + H2O + 2 KHSO4

Mn2O7 can react further with sulfuric acid to give the remarkable cation MnO3+, which is isoelectronic with CrO3:

Mn2O7 + 2 H2SO4 → MnO3+,HSO4- + H2O

Mn2O7 decomposes near room temperature, explosively so at >55 °C. The explosion can be initiated by striking the sample or by its exposure to oxidizable organic compounds. The products are MnO2 and O2.[4] Ozone is also produced, giving a strong smell to the substance.


  1. ^ Aschoff, H. Ann. Phys. Chem. Ser. 2 volume 111 (1860) page 217 and page 224.
  2. ^ Simon, A.; Dronskowski, R.; Krebs, B.; Hettich, B. "Die Kristallstruktur von Mn2O7" Angewandte Chemie 1987, volume 99, pages 160–161.
  3. ^ Krebs, B.; Mueller, A.; Beyer, H. H. The Crystal Structure of Rhenium(VII) Oxide" Inorganic Chemistry 1969, 8, 436-443.
  4. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Manganese(VII)_oxide". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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