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Additional recommended knowledge
Most generally, the following occurs:
Since the HCl and NaOH dissociate into ions in solution, the ionic equation is:
And since the sodium and chloride ions are just spectator ions not involved in the reaction, the net equation becomes:
This illustrates why neutralization reactions are also referred to as water forming reactions. Of course the sodium and chloride ions are still in solution so the result is pH neutral salt water.
Therefore we can conclude -
acid + alkali = metal salt + water
acid + metal = metal salt + hydrogen
acid + metal oxide = metal salt + water
acid + metal hydroxide = metal salt + water
acid + ammonia = ammonia salt + water
acid + metal carbonate = metal salt + water + carbon dioxide
acid + metal hydrogencarbonate = metal salt + water + carbon dioxide
The last two reactions are not considered as neutralization in some context because carbon dioxide is formed in addition to salt and water.
Chemical titration methods are used for analyzing acids or bases to determine the unknown concentration. A pH meter can be used to determine the point of neutralization or a pH indicator such as UI (universal indicator) which shows the point of neutralization by a distinct color change can be used. Simple stoichiometric calculations with the known volume of the unknown and the known volume and molarity of the added chemical gives the molarity of the unknown.
Neutralization can also be used to reduce the pain of insect and plant stings. Bee stings can be neutralized with alkalis and wasps with acids. Nettle stings can be neutralized with alkalis like the one found in dock leaves.
In wastewater treatment, chemical neutralization methods are often applied to reduce the damage that an effluent may cause upon release to the environment. For pH control, popular chemicals include Calcium Carbonate, Calcium Oxide, Magnesium Hydroxide, and Sodium Bicarbonate. The selection of an appropriate neutralization chemical depends on the particular application.
Equal amounts (numbers of moles) of acid and base are needed for neutralization reactions between strong acids and strong bases. Use the formula:
a × [A] × Va = b × [B] × Vb
where a is the number of acidic hydrogens and b is the constant that tells you how many H3O+ ions the base can accept. [A] denotes the concentration of acid and [B], the concentration of base. Va is the volume of acid and Vb is the volume of base.
Metcalf & Eddy. Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003. 526-532.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Neutralization". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|