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Organogermanium compounds are organometallic compounds containing a carbon to germanium or hydrogen to germanium chemical bond. Organogermanium chemistry is the corresponding chemical science. Germanium shares group 14 in the periodic table with silicon, tin and lead and not surprisingly the chemistry of organogermanium is in between that of organosilicon compounds and organotin compounds.
The main reason why the organogermanium is of limited synthetic value are the costs of germanium compounds. On the other hand germanium is advocated as a non-toxic alternative to many toxic organotin reagents and compounds like tetramethylgermanium and tetraethylgermanium are used in the microelectronics industry as precursors for germanium oxide chemical vapor deposition.
Additional recommended knowledge
Organogermanes of the type R4Ge with alkyl (R) groups are accessed through the cheapest available germanium precursor germanium tetrachloride and alkyl nucleophiles. The following trends are observed going down the carbon group: The nucleophilicty increases Si
Just as with silicon the nucleophilicity of allyl germanes is high due to the intrinsic polarization of the bond (difference in electronegativity 2.55 − 2.01 = 0.54) and the combined stabilizing effect on the α-carbonion by the allyl group and the germanium atom. The germanium pendant of the Sakurai reaction was discovered in 1986:
The carbonyl group in this reaction is activated with boron trifluoride.
Isobutylgermane (IBGe) (Me2CHCH2)GeH3 is the organogermanium hydride that is a high vapor pressure liquid germanium source for MOVPE. Isobutylgermane is currently investigated as safer and less hazardous alternative to toxic germane gas in microelectonic applications.
Tris(trimethylsilyl)germanium hydride (Me3Si)3GeH has been investigated as a non-toxic alternative to many tin hydrides such as tributyltinhydride.
Other germanium compounds
Many germanium reactive intermediates are known: germylenes (carbene pendants), germyl free radicals, germynes (carbyne pendants).
As with silicon and contrasting with carbon, compounds containing Ge-C and Ge-Ge double bonds are unstable but known for instance the benzene pendant germanabenzene.
Categories: Germanium compounds | Organometallic compounds
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Organogermanium_compound". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|