Organoborane or organoboron compounds are chemical compounds that are organic derivatives of BH3, for example trialkyl boranes. Organoboron chemistry or organoborane chemistry is the chemistry of these compounds . Organoboron compounds are important reagents in organic chemistry enabling many chemical transformations, the most important one called hydroboration.
The C-B bond has low polarity (the difference in electronegativity 2.55 for carbon and 2.04 for boron) and therefore alkyl boron compounds are in general stable though easily oxidized. Vinyl groups and aryl groups donate electrons and make boron less electrophilic and the C-B bond gains some double bond character. Like the parent borane, diborane, organoboranes are classified in organic chemistry as strong electrophiles because boron is unable to gain a full octet of electrons. Unlike diborane however, organoboranes do not form dimers.
Other boranes (of academic interest) are carboranes, cluster compounds of carbon and boron and borabenzene, the boron equivalent of benzene.
Boranes react rapidly to alkenes in a process called hydroboration. This concept was discovered by Dr. Herbert Charles Brown at Purdue University with help from Georg Wittig. Although diborane as a pure compound is a dimer, BH3 forms a 1:1 complex with oxygen in for instance THF. In an ordinary electrophilic addition reaction the Markovnikov's rule determines regioselectivity but with boranes the mode of action is the exact opposite. The reason is that boron is less electronegative than hydrogen. When a positive charge develops in the alkene on most substituted carbon atom, that is where the partially negatively charged hydrogen atom adds to, leaving the least substituted carbon atom for the boron atom. The so called anti-Markovnikov addition is most pronounced when the boron compound has very bulky substituents. One organoboron reagent that is often employed in synthesis is 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane or 9-BBN which is generated from the reaction of cyclooctadiene and diborane. Hydroborations take place stereoselective in a syn mode, that is on the same face of the alkene. In this concerted reaction the transition state is represented as a square with the corners occupied by carbon, carbon, hydrogen and boron with maximum overlap between the two olefinp-orbitals and the empty boron orbital.
A second group of reactions that organoboron compounds are involved in create new carbon carbon bonds. Carbon monoxide is found to react very easily with a trialkylborane. What follows is a 1,2-rearrangement when an alkyl substituent on the anionic boron migrates to the adjacent electrophilic carbon of the carbonyl group. The carbonyl group can then be reduced to an alcohol group.
Trialkyl boranes can be oxidized to the corresponding borates. One method for the determination of the amount of C-B bonds in a compound is by oxidation of R3B with the nitroso compound nitrosomethane (MeNO) to RB(OR)3 and trimethyl amine Me3N which can be titrated.
Boronic acids ROH2 react with potassium hydrogen fluoride to a trifluoroborate salt RBF3M  which are precursors to nucleophilic alkyl and aryl boron difluorides (ArBF2). The salts are more stable than the boronic acids themselves and used for instance in alkylation of certain aldehydes:
Nucleophilic anionic boryl compounds have long been elusive but a 2006 study described a boryllithium compound which reacts as a nucleophile:
Chemical compounds with boron to boron double bonds are rare. In 2007 the first neutral diborene (RHB=BHB) was presented . Each boron atom has a proton attached to it and each boron atom is coordinated to a so-called NHC carbene.
TEB - Triethylborane was used to ignite the JP-7 fuel of the Pratt / Whitney J-58 ramjet engines powering the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird.
Compounds of carbon with other elements in the periodic table:
^The Roles of Boron and Silicon, Susan E. Thomas; Oxford Chemistry Primers No.1; 1991: Very good general book covering all the important reactions of boron and organoboranes in organic chemistry.
^Organometallics Christoph Elschenbroich 3rd Ed. 2006ISBN 3-527-29390-6 - Wiley-VCH, Weinheim
^Advanced Organic Chemistry, F.A. carey, R.J. Sundberg ISBN 0-306-41088-5
^Conversion of Arylboronic Acids into Potassium Aryltrifluoroborates: Convenient Precursors of Arylboron Difluoride Lewis Acids E. Vedejs, R. W. Chapman, S. C. Fields, S. Lin, M. R. Schrimpf J. Org. Chem.1995; 60(10); 3020-3027. doi:10.1021/jo00115a016
^ Organoboron compounds as mild nucleophiles in Lewis acid- and transition metal-catalyzed
C–C bond-forming reactions Robert A. Batey, Tan D. Quach, Ming Shen, Avinash N. Thadani, David V. Smil, Sze-Wan Li, and D. Bruce MacKay Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 74, No. 1, pp. 43–55, 2002. http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/2002/pdf/7401x0043.pdf
^Boryllithium: Isolation, Characterization, and Reactivity as a Boryl Anion Yasutomo Segawa, Makoto Yamashita, Kyoko Nozaki Science 6 October 2006:
Vol. 314. no. 5796, pp. 113 - 115 doi:10.1126/science.1131914
^Boron Attacks Electropositive element pressed into action as nucleophilic boryllithium Bethany Halford Chemical & Engineering News October 9, 2006 Volume 84, Number 41 p. 11 Link
^Boronic Acids: Preparation, Applications in Organic Synthesis and Medicine. Dennis G. Hall ISBN 3-527-30991-8
^A Stable Neutral Diborene Containing a BdB Double Bond Yuzhong Wang, Brandon Quillian, Pingrong Wei, Chaitanya S. Wannere, Yaoming Xie, R. Bruce King, Henry F. Schaefer, III, Paul v. R. Schleyer, and Gregory H. Robinson doi:10.1021/ja075932i