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Phosphoryl chloride (commonly called phosphorus oxychloride) is a colourless liquid with the formula POCl3. It hydrolyses in moist air to phosphoric acid to release choking fumes of hydrogen chloride. It is manufactured industrially on a large scale from phosphorus trichloride and oxygen or phosphorus pentoxide. It is mainly used to make phosphate esters such as tricresyl phosphate.
Additional recommended knowledge
Like phosphate, phosphoryl chloride is tetrahedral in shape. It features three P-Cl bonds and one very strong P=O double bond, with an estimated bond dissociation energy of 533.5 kJ/mol. On the basis of bond length and electronegativity, the Schomaker-Stevenson rule suggests that the double bond form is very dominant (in contrast with POF3). The P=O bond does not resemble the π bond in a carbonyl group as in a ketone. The appropriate description of the P-O interaction is a matter of long discussion. Older textbooks favor a description that invokes participation of the d-orbitals on phosphorus. Some of these d-orbitals project toward the O atom, overlapping with p-orbitals on oxygen. More modern texts seem to favor a description where the P-O π bonding involves the sigma* components of the P-Cl bonds. These descriptions do not consider a role for d-orbitals.
If the water is replaced by an alcohol, the trialkyl phosphate esters result. Such reactions are often performed in the presence of an HCl acceptor such as pyridine or an amine. If POCl3 is heated with an excess of a phenol (ArOH) in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst such as magnesium chloride a triaryl phosphate ester is formed, for example:
POCl3 can also act as a Lewis base, forming adducts with a variety of Lewis acids such as titanium tetrachloride:
The aluminium chloride adduct (POCl3·AlCl3) is quite stable, and so POCl3 can be used to remove AlCl3 completely from reaction mixtures at the end of a Friedel-Crafts reaction. POCl3 reacts with hydrogen bromide in the presence of AlCl3 to produce POBr3.
An alternative synthesis involves the reaction of phosphorus pentachloride and phosphorus pentoxide. Since these compounds are both solids, a convenient way of performing the reaction is to chlorinate a mixture of PCl3 and P4O10, which generates the PCl5 in situ. As the PCl3 is consumed, the POCl3 becomes the reaction solvent.
Phosphorus pentachloride also forms POCl3 by reaction with water, but this reaction is less easily controlled than the above reaction.
The most important use for phosphoryl chloride is in the manufacture of triarylphosphate esters (as described above) such as triphenyl phosphate and tricresyl phosphate. These esters have been used for many years as flame retardants and plasticisers for PVC. Meanwhile trialkyl esters such as tributyl phosphate (made similarly from butan-1-ol) are used as liquid-liquid extraction solvents in nuclear reprocessing and elsewhere.
Such reactions are believed to go via an imidoyl chloride; in certain cases where it is stable, the imidoyl chloride is the final product. For example pyridones and pyrimidones can be converted to chloro- derivatives of pyridines and pyrimidines, which are important intermediates in the pharmaceutical industry. Likewise barbituric acid is converted to 2,4,6-trichloropyrimidine. by reaction with POCl3 at 140 °C.
Related to this chemistry is the use of POCl3 in acylation of activated aromatic rings via the Vilsmeier-Haack reaction to produce aryl aldehydes and ketones. The reaction most often uses a formamide such as DMF or N-phenyl-N-methylformamide, and it produces an iminium salt which is easily hydrolysed to the aldehyde upon workup. For example anthracene gives 9-anthraldehyde:
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Phosphoryl_chloride". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|