To use all functions of this page, please activate cookies in your browser.
With an accout for my.chemeurope.com you can always see everything at a glance – and you can configure your own website and individual newsletter.
- My watch list
- My saved searches
- My saved topics
- My newsletter
Additional recommended knowledge
Remarkably, the first preparation of oligo- or polystannanes was published by Löwig already in 1852 , only 2 years after Franklands report  on the isolation of organotin compounds (considered to be the first publication on such compounds). Löwig prepared oligo- or polystannanes by an exothermic reaction of iodoethane with a Sn/K or a Sn/Na alloy, in the presence of quartz sand which was used to control the reaction rate. After work-up of the reaction mixture, fractions of organotin compounds with elemental compositions close to those of oligo(diethylstannane)s or poly(diethylstannane) were obtained. Cahours [3, 4] obtained similar products and attributed the formation of the so-called stannic ethyl to a reaction of the Wurtz type. Interestingly, already in 1858, stannic ethyl was formulated as a polymeric compound denoted with the composition n(SnC4H5) . In 1917 Grüttner , who reinvestigated results on hexaethyl-distannanes(H5C2)3Sn-Sn(C2H5)3 reported by Ladenburg in 1870  confirmed the presence of Sn-Sn bonds and predicated for the first time that tin could form chain like compounds. In 1943, it was postulated that “diphenyltin” exists as a type of polymeric material because of its yellow color , and indeed a bathochromic shift of the wavelength at maximum absorption with increasing number of Sn atoms was found later in the case of oligo(dibutylstannane)s comprising up to 15 Sn atoms .
Synthesis and Characterization of Pure Linear Polystannanes
A facile dehydropolymerization of dialkytin dihydrides (R2SnH2) with Wilkinson’s catalyst, was found in 2005 , which provide polystannanes without detectable amounts of "cyclic"-byproducts. This convenient, rapid and high-yield synthesis was employed to produce a variety of polystannanes comprising different side groups. The polymers synthesized were of a yellow color, featured consistencies that ranged from soft to honey-like, number average molar masses of 10 to 70 kg/mol and a polydispersity of 2 – 3.
 C. Löwig, Mitt. Naturforsch. Ges. Zürich, 1852, 2, 556.
 E. Frankland, Q. J. Chem. Soc., 1850, 2, 263.
 A. Cahours, Ann. Chem. Pharm. (Liebig’s Ann.), 1860, 114, 227.
 A. Cahours, Ann. Chim. Phys., Sér. 3, 1860, 58, 5.
 A. Strecker, Ann. Chem. Pharm. (Liebig’s Ann.), 1858, 105, 306.
 G. Grüttner, Ber. Deutsch. Chem. Gesell., 1917, 50, 1808.
 A. Ladenburg, Ber. Deutsch. Chem. Gesell., 1870, 3, 353.
 K. A. Jensen, N. Clauson-Kaas, Z. anorg. allg. Chem., 1943, 250, 277.
 L. R. Sita, K. W. Terry, K. Shibata, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1995, 117, 8049.
 A. Wurtz, Ann. Chim. Phys., Sér. 3, 1855, 44, 275.
 P. Pfeiffer, R. Prade, H. Rekate, Chem. Ber., 1911, 44, 1269.
 N. Devylder, M. Hill, K. C. Molloy, G. J. Price, Chem. Commun., 1996, 711.
 S. J. Holder, R. G. Jones, R. E. Benfield, M. J. Went, Polymer, 1996, 37, 3477.
 W. K. Zou, N. L. Yang, Polym. Prep. (Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem.), 1992, 33, 188.
 A. Mustafa, M. Achilleos, J. Ruiz-Iban, J. Davies, R. E. Benfield, R. G. Jones, D. Grandjean, S. J. Holder, React. Funct. Polym., 2006, 66, 123.
 T. Imori, V. Lu, H. Cai, T. D. Tilley, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1995, 117, 9931.
 M. Okano, N. Matsumoto, M. Arakawa, T. Tsuruta, H. Hamano, Chem. Commun., 1998, 1799.
 M. Okano, K. Watanabe, Electrochem. Commun., 2000, 2, 471.
 T. Imori, T. D. Tilley, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1993, 1607.
 V. Y. Lu, T. D. Tilley, Macromolecules, 2000, 33, 2403.
 H. G. Woo, J. M. Park, S. J. Song, S. Y. Yang, I. S. Kim, W. G. Kim, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc., 1997, 18, 1291.
 H. G. Woo, S. J. Song, B. H. Kim, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc., 1998, 19, 1161.
 F. Choffat, P. Smith, W. Caseri, J. Mater. Chem., 2005, 15, 1789.
 M. P. de Haas, F. Choffat, W. Caseri, P. Smith, J. M. Warman, Adv. Mater., 2006, 18, 44.
Categories: Polymers | Polymer chemistry | Inorganic polymers | Conductive polymers | Plastics
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Polystannane". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|