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Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)platinum(0)



Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)platinum(0)
General
Systematic name Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)platinum(0)
Other names Tetrakis(triphenylphosphane)platinum(0)
TPP platinum(0)
Molecular formula C72H60P4Pt
Molar mass 1244.24 g/mol
Appearance yellow crystals
CAS number [14221-02-4]
Properties
Density and phase  ? g/cm³, ?
Solubility in water Insoluble
In benzene,
dichloromethane,
chloroform
Approx 5 g/100mL
Melting point 160 °C
Structure
Molecular shape tetrahedral
Coordination
geometry
four triphenylphosphine unidentate
ligands attached to a central Pt(0)
atom in a tetrahedral geometry
Crystal structure  ?
Dipole moment 0 D
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
Main hazards PPh3 is an irritant
NFPA 704
1
2
0
 
R/S statement R: n/a
S: S24/25
RTECS number Unregistered
Related compounds
Related complexes Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0)
tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)nickel(0)
tris(triphenylphosphine)platinum(0)
Related compounds triphenylphosphine
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references

Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)platinum(0) is the chemical compound with the formula Pt(P(C6H5)3)4, often abbreviated Pt(PPh3)4. The bright yellow compound is widely used as a precursor to other platinum complexes.

Additional recommended knowledge

Structure and behavior

The molecule is tetrahedral, with point group symmetry of Td, as expected for a four-coordinate metal complex of a metal with the d10 configuration. Even though this complex follows the 18 electron rule, it dissociates triphenylphosphine in solution to give the 16e derivative containing only three PPh3 ligands:

Pt(PPh3)4 → Pt(PPh3)3 + PPh3

Synthesis and reactions

The complex is typically prepared in one-pot reaction from potassium tetrachloroplatinate(II). Reduction of this platinum(II) species with alkaline ethanol in the presence of excess triphenylphosphine affords the product as a precipitate. The reaction occurs in two distinct steps. In the first step, PtCl2(PPh3)2 is generated. In the second step, this platinum(II) complex is reduced. The overall synthesis can be summarized as:

K2[PtCl4] + 2KOH + 4PPh3 + C2H5OH → Pt(PPh3)4 + 4KCl + CH3CHO + 2H2O

Both Pt(PPh3)4 and Pt(PPh3)4 react with oxidants to give platinum(II) derivatives:

Pt(PPh3)4 + Cl2cis-PtCl2(PPh3)2 + 2 PPh3

Most mineral acids give the corresponding hydride complex:

Pt(PPh3)4 + HCl2trans-PtCl(H)(PPh3)2 + 2 PPh3

The reaction with oxygen affords a dioxygen complex:

Pt(PPh3)4 + O2 → Pt(η2-O2)(PPh3)2 + 2 PPh3

This complex is a precursor to the ethylene complex

Pt(η2-O2)(PPh3)2 + C2H4 → Pt(η2-C2H4)(PPh3)2 + "NaBH2(OH)2"

Further reading

  1. T. Yoshida, T. Matsuda, S. Otsuka, G. W. Parshall, W. G. Peet. "Tetrakis(Triethylphosphine)Platinum(0)". Inorganic Syntheses 28: 122-125. doi:10.1002/9780470132593.ch32.
  2. Miessler, Gary L., and Donald A. Tarr. Inorganic Chemistry. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)platinum(0)". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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