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Ion



  An ion is an atom or molecule which has lost or gained one or more electrons, making it positively or negatively charged. A negatively charged ion, which has more electrons in its electron shells than it has protons in its nuclei, is known as an anion (pronounced /ˈænaɪən/; an-eye-on) due to its attraction to anodes. Conversely, a positively-charged ion, which has fewer electrons than protons, is known as a cation (pronounced /ˈkætaɪən/; cat-eye-on) due to its attraction to cathodes.

An ion consisting of a single atom is called a monatomic ion, but if it consists of two or more atoms, it is a polyatomic ion. Polyatomic ions containing oxygen, such as carbonate and sulfate, are called oxyanions.

Ions are denoted in the same way as electrically neutral atoms and molecules except for the presence of a superscript indicating the sign of the net electric charge and the number of electrons lost or gained, if more than one. For example: H+ and SO42−.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Etymology

The name ion was given by Michael Faraday. It is derived from the Greek word ἰόν, participle of ἰέναι, "to go", or έἰμι , "I go"; thus "a goer". Anion, ἀνιόν, and cation, κατιόν, mean "(a thing) going up" and "(a thing) going down", respectively; and anode, ἄνοδος, and cathode, κάθοδος, mean "a way up" and "a way down", respectively, from ὁδός, "way," or "road".

Formation

Formation of polyatomic and molecular ions

Polyatomic and molecular ions are often formed by the combination of elemental ions such as H+ with neutral molecules or by the gain of such elemental ions from neutral molecules. A simple example of this is the ammonium ion NH4+ which can be formed by ammonia NH3 accepting a proton, H+. Ammonia and ammonium have the same number of electrons in essentially the same electronic configuration but differ in protons. The charge has been added by the addition of a proton (H+) not the addition or removal of electrons. The distinction between this and the removal of an electron from the whole molecule is important in large systems because it usually results in much more stable ions with complete electron shells. For example NH3·+ is not stable because of an incomplete valence shell around nitrogen and is in fact a radical ion.

Ionization potential

Main article: Ionization potential

The energy required to detach an electron in its lowest energy state from an atom or molecule of a gas with less net electric charge is called the ionization potential, or ionization energy. The nth ionization energy of an atom is the energy required to detach its nth electron after the first n − 1 electrons have already been detached.

Each successive ionization energy is markedly greater than the last. Particularly great increases occur after any given block of atomic orbitals is exhausted of electrons. For this reason, ions tend to form in ways that leave them with full orbital blocks. For example, sodium has one valence electron, in its outermost shell, so in ionized form it is commonly found with one lost electron, as Na+. On the other side of the periodic table, chlorine has seven valence electrons, so in ionized form it is commonly found with one gained electron, as Cl. Francium has the lowest ionization energy of all the elements and fluorine has the greatest. The ionization energy of metals is generally much lower than the ionization energy of nonmetals, which is why metals will generally lose electrons to form positively-charged ions while nonmetals will generally gain electrons to form negatively-charged ions.

A neutral atom contains an equal number of Z protons in the nucleus and Z electrons in the electron shell. The electrons' negative charges thus exactly cancel the protons' positive charges. In the simple view of the Free electron model, a passing electron is therefore not attracted to a neutral atom and cannot bind to it. In reality, however, the atomic electrons form a cloud into which the additional electron penetrates, thus being exposed to a net positive charge part of the time. Furthermore, the additional charge displaces the original electrons and all of the Z + 1 electrons rearrange into a new configuration.

Ions

  • Anions are negatively charged ions. Anions are negatively charged because there are more electrons associated with them than there are protons in their nuclei.
  • Cations are positively charged ions. Cations are the opposite of anions, since cations have fewer electrons than protons.
  • Dianion: a dianion is a species which has two negative charges on it; for example, the aromatic dianion pentalene.
  • Radical ions: radical ions are ions that contain an odd number of electrons and are mostly very reactive and unstable.

Plasma

Main article: Plasma (physics)

A collection of non-aqueous gas-like ions, or even a gas containing a proportion of charged particles, is called a plasma, often called the fourth state of matter because its properties are quite different from solids, liquids, and gases. Astrophysical plasmas containing predominantly a mixture of electrons and protons, may make up as much as 99.9% of visible matter in the universe.[1]

Applications

Ions are essential to life. Sodium, potassium, calcium and other ions play an important role in the cells of living organisms, particularly in cell membranes. They have many practical, everyday applications in items such as smoke detectors, and are also finding use in unconventional technologies such as ion engines. Inorganic dissolved ions are a component of total dissolved solids, an indicator of water quality in the world.

Common ions

Common Cations
Common Name Formula Historic Name
Simple Cations
AluminiumAl3+
BariumBa2+
BerylliumBe2+
CaesiumCs+
CalciumCa2+
Chromium(II)Cr2+Chromous
Chromium(III)Cr3+Chromic
Chromium(VI)Cr6+Chromyl
Cobalt(II)Co2+Cobaltous
Cobalt(III)Co3+Cobaltic
Copper(I)Cu+Cuprous
Copper(II)Cu2+Cupric
Copper(III)Cu3+
Gallium Ga3+
HeliumHe2+(Alpha particle)
HydrogenH+(Proton)
Iron(II)Fe2+Ferrous
Iron(III)Fe3+Ferric
Lead(II)Pb2+Plumbous
Lead(IV)Pb4+Plumbic
LithiumLi+
MagnesiumMg2+
Manganese(II)Mn2+Manganous
Manganese(III)Mn3+Manganic
Manganese(IV)Mn4+Manganyl
Manganese(VII)Mn7+
Mercury(II)Hg2+Mercuric
Nickel(II)Ni2+Nickelous
Nickel(III)Ni3+Nickelic
Potassium K+
SilverAg+
SodiumNa+
StrontiumSr2+
Tin(II)Sn2+Stannous
Tin(IV)Sn4+Stannic
ZincZn2+
Polyatomic Cations
AmmoniumNH4+
HydroniumH3O+
NitroniumNO2+
Mercury(I)Hg22+Mercurous
Common Anions
Formal Name Formula Alt. Name
Simple Anions
ArsenideAs3−
AzideN3
BromideBr
ChlorideCl
FluorideF
HydrideH
IodideI
NitrideN3−
OxideO2−
PhosphideP3−
SulfideS2−
PeroxideO22−
Oxoanions
ArsenateAsO43−
ArseniteAsO33−
BorateBO33−
BromateBrO3
HypobromiteBrO
CarbonateCO32−
Hydrogen carbonateHCO3Bicarbonate
HydroxideOH
ChlorateClO3
PerchlorateClO4
ChloriteClO2
HypochloriteClO
ChromateCrO42−
DichromateCr2O72−
IodateIO3
NitrateNO3
NitriteNO2
PhosphatePO43−
Hydrogen phosphateHPO42−
Dihydrogen phosphateH2PO4
PermanganateMnO4
PhosphitePO33−
SulfateSO42−
ThiosulfateS2O32−
Hydrogen sulfateHSO4Bisulfate
SulfiteSO32−
Hydrogen sulfiteHSO3Bisulfite
Anions from Organic Acids
AcetateC2H3O2
FormateHCO2
OxalateC2O42−
Hydrogen oxalateHC2O4Bioxalate
Other Anions
Hydrogen sulfideHSBisulfide
TellurideTe2−
AmideNH2
CyanateOCN
ThiocyanateSCN
CyanideCN

References

  1. ^ Plasma, Plasma, Everywere Science@NASA Headline news, Space Science n° 158, September 7, 1999.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Ion". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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