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Electrical resistivity (also known as specific electrical resistance) is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current. A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows the movement of electrical charge. The SI unit of electrical resistivity is the ohm metre.
The electrical resistivity ρ (rho) of a material is given by
Electrical resistivity can also be defined as
Finally, electrical resistivity is also defined as the inverse of the conductivity σ (sigma), of the material, or
Table of resistivities
*The numbers in this column increase or decrease the significand portion of the resistivity. For example, at 21°C (294.15 K), the resistivity of silver is 1.65×10−8.
In general, electrical resistivity of metals increases with temperature, while the resistivity of semiconductors decreases with increasing temperature. In both cases, electron-phonon interactions can play a key role. At high temperatures, the resistance of a metal increases linearly with temperature. As the temperature of a metal is reduced, the temperature dependence of resistivity follows a power law function of temperature. Mathematically the temperature dependence of the resistivity ρ of a metal is given by the Bloch-Gruneissen formula :
where ρ(0) is the residual resistivity due to defect scattering, A is a constant that depends on the velocity of electrons at the fermi surface, the Debye radius and the number density of electrons in the metal. ΘR is the Debye temperature as obtained from resistivity measurements and matches very closely with the values of Debye temperature obtained from specific heat measurements. n is an integer that depends upon the nature of interaction:
As the temperature of the metal is sufficiently reduced (so as to 'freeze' all the phonons), the resistivity usually reaches a constant value, known as the residual resistivity. This value depends not only on the type of metal, but on its purity and thermal history. The value of the residual resistivity of a metal is decided by its impurity concentration. Some materials lose all electrical resistivity at sufficiently low temperatures, due to an effect known as superconductivity.
An even better approximation of the temperature dependence of the resistivity of a semiconductor is given by the Steinhart-Hart equation:
where A, B and C are the so-called Steinhart-Hart coefficients.
This equation is used to calibrate thermistors.
When analysing the response of materials to alternating electric fields, as is done in certain types of tomography, it is necessary to replace resistivity with a complex quantity called impeditivity, in analogy to electrical impedance. Impeditivity is the sum of a real component, the resistivity, and an imaginary component, the reactivity (reactance) .
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Resistivity". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|