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Delta Opioid receptor

Template:DISPLAYTITLE:delta Opioid receptor

Opioid receptor, delta 1
Symbol(s) OPRD1; OPRD
External IDs OMIM: 165195 MGI: 97438 Homologene: 20252
RNA expression pattern

More reference expression data

Human Mouse
Entrez 4985 18386
Ensembl ENSG00000116329 na
Uniprot P41143 na
Refseq NM_000911 (mRNA)
NP_000902 (protein)
XM_973497 (mRNA)
XP_978591 (protein)
Location Chr 1: 29.01 - 29.06 Mb na
Pubmed search [1] [2]

δ-Opioid receptors are a class of opioid receptor which have enkephalins as their endogenous ligands.[1]


Activation of the receptors produces analgesia.[2] Some research suggests that they may also be related to seizures.

Until quite recently, there were few pharmacological tools for the study of δ receptors. As a consequence, our understanding of their function is much more limited than those of the other opioid receptors.

Recent work indicates that exogenous ligands which activate the delta receptors mimic the phenomenon known as ischemic preconditioning.[3] Experimentally, if short periods of transient ischemia are induced the downstream tissues are robustly protected if longer-duration interruption of the blood supply is then effected. Opiates and opioids with delta activity mimic this effect. In the rat model introduction of delta active ligands results in significant cardioprotection.[4]


  1. ^ Quock RM, Burkey TH, Varga E, Hosohata Y, Hosohata K, Cowell SM, Slate CA, Ehlert FJ, Roeske WR, Yamamura HI (1999). "The delta-opioid receptor: molecular pharmacology, signal transduction, and the determination of drug efficacy". Pharmacol. Rev. 51 (3): 503–32. PMID 10471416.
  2. ^ Varga EV, Navratilova E, Stropova D, Jambrosic J, Roeske WR, Yamamura HI (2004). "Agonist-specific regulation of the delta-opioid receptor". Life Sci. 76 (6): 599–612. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2004.07.020. PMID 15567186.
  3. ^ Zhang J, Qian H, Zhao P, Hong SS, Xia Y (2006). "Rapid hypoxia preconditioning protects cortical neurons from glutamate toxicity through delta-opioid receptor". Stroke 37 (4): 1094–9. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000206444.29930.18. PMID 16514101.
  4. ^ Guo L, Zhang L, Zhang DC (2005). "[Mechanisms of delta-opioids cardioprotective effects in ischemia and its potential clinical applications]" (in Chinese). Sheng li ke xue jin zhan [Progress in physiology] 36 (4): 333–6. PMID 16408774.

Further reading

  • Narita M, Funada M, Suzuki T (2001). "Regulations of opioid dependence by opioid receptor types.". Pharmacol. Ther. 89 (1): 1-15. PMID 11316510.
  • Evans CJ, Keith DE, Morrison H, et al. (1993). "Cloning of a delta opioid receptor by functional expression.". Science 258 (5090): 1952-5. PMID 1335167.
  • Offermanns S, Schultz G, Rosenthal W (1991). "Evidence for opioid receptor-mediated activation of the G-proteins, Go and Gi2, in membranes of neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells.". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (6): 3365-8. PMID 1671672.
  • Simonin F, Befort K, Gavériaux-Ruff C, et al. (1995). "The human delta-opioid receptor: genomic organization, cDNA cloning, functional expression, and distribution in human brain.". Mol. Pharmacol. 46 (6): 1015-21. PMID 7808419.
  • Befort K, Mattéi MG, Roeckel N, Kieffer B (1994). "Chromosomal localization of the delta opioid receptor gene to human 1p34.3-p36.1 and mouse 4D bands by in situ hybridization.". Genomics 20 (1): 143-5. PMID 8020949.
  • Knapp RJ, Malatynska E, Fang L, et al. (1994). "Identification of a human delta opioid receptor: cloning and expression.". Life Sci. 54 (25): PL463-9. PMID 8201839.
  • Georgoussi Z, Carr C, Milligan G (1993). "Direct measurements of in situ interactions of rat brain opioid receptors with the guanine nucleotide-binding protein Go.". Mol. Pharmacol. 44 (1): 62-9. PMID 8393523.
  • Bzdega T, Chin H, Kim H, et al. (1993). "Regional expression and chromosomal localization of the delta opiate receptor gene.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (20): 9305-9. PMID 8415697.
  • Ho MK, Wong YH (1997). "Functional role of amino-terminal serine16 and serine27 of G alphaZ in receptor and effector coupling.". J. Neurochem. 68 (6): 2514-22. PMID 9166747.
  • Hedin KE, Bell MP, Kalli KR, et al. (1998). "Delta-opioid receptors expressed by Jurkat T cells enhance IL-2 secretion by increasing AP-1 complexes and activity of the NF-AT/AP-1-binding promoter element.". J. Immunol. 159 (11): 5431-40. PMID 9548483.
  • Jordan BA, Devi LA (1999). "G-protein-coupled receptor heterodimerization modulates receptor function.". Nature 399 (6737): 697-700. doi:10.1038/21441. PMID 10385123.
  • Petaja-Repo UE, Hogue M, Laperriere A, et al. (2000). "Export from the endoplasmic reticulum represents the limiting step in the maturation and cell surface expression of the human delta opioid receptor.". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (18): 13727-36. PMID 10788493.
  • Gelernter J, Kranzler HR (2000). "Variant detection at the delta opioid receptor (OPRD1) locus and population genetics of a novel variant affecting protein sequence.". Hum. Genet. 107 (1): 86-8. PMID 10982041.
  • Guo J, Wu Y, Zhang W, et al. (2000). "Identification of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 phosphorylation sites responsible for agonist-stimulated delta-opioid receptor phosphorylation.". Mol. Pharmacol. 58 (5): 1050-6. PMID 11040053.
  • Gomes I, Jordan BA, Gupta A, et al. (2001). "Heterodimerization of mu and delta opioid receptors: A role in opiate synergy.". J. Neurosci. 20 (22): RC110. PMID 11069979.
  • Xu W, Chen C, Huang P, et al. (2000). "The conserved cysteine 7.38 residue is differentially accessible in the binding-site crevices of the mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.". Biochemistry 39 (45): 13904-15. PMID 11076532.
  • Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination.". Genome Res. 10 (11): 1788-95. PMID 11076863.
  • Saeed RW, Stefano GB, Murga JD, et al. (2001). "Expression of functional delta opioid receptors in vascular smooth muscle.". Int. J. Mol. Med. 6 (6): 673-7. PMID 11078827.
  • Xiang B, Yu GH, Guo J, et al. (2001). "Heterologous activation of protein kinase C stimulates phosphorylation of delta-opioid receptor at serine 344, resulting in beta-arrestin- and clathrin-mediated receptor internalization.". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (7): 4709-16. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006187200. PMID 11085981.
  • Yeo A, Samways DS, Fowler CE, et al. (2001). "Coincident signalling between the Gi/Go-coupled delta-opioid receptor and the Gq-coupled m3 muscarinic receptor at the level of intracellular free calcium in SH-SY5Y cells.". J. Neurochem. 76 (6): 1688-700. PMID 11259487.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Delta_Opioid_receptor". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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