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Toll-like receptor 3
The structure of TLR3 covered with sugars
Available structures: 1ziw, 2a0z
Symbol(s) TLR3; CD283
External IDs OMIM: 603029 MGI: 2156367 Homologene: 20696
RNA expression pattern

More reference expression data

Human Mouse
Entrez 7098 142980
Ensembl ENSG00000164342 ENSMUSG00000031639
Uniprot O15455 Q3TM31
Refseq NM_003265 (mRNA)
NP_003256 (protein)
NM_126166 (mRNA)
NP_569054 (protein)
Location Chr 4: 187.23 - 187.24 Mb Chr 8: 46.89 - 46.91 Mb
Pubmed search [1] [2]

TLR 3 is a member of the Toll-like receptor family of pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Discovered in 2001,[1] TLR3 recognizes double-stranded RNA, a form of genetic information carried by some viruses such as influenza. Upon recognition, TLR 3 induces the activation of NF-kB to increase production of type I interferons which signal other cells to increase their antiviral defenses. Double-stranded RNA is also recognised by the cytoplasmic receptors RIG-I and MDA-5.


The structure of TLR3 was reported in June 2005 by researchers at The Scripps Research Institute.[2] TLR3 forms a large horseshoe shape that contacts with a neighboring horseshoe, forming a "dimer" of two horseshoes. Much of the TLR3 protein surface is covered with sugar molecules, making it a glycoprotein, but on one face (including the interface between the two horseshoes), there is a large sugar-free surface. This surface also contains two distinct patches rich in positively-charged amino acids, which may be a binding site for negatively-charged double-stranded RNA.

Despite being a glycoprotein, TLR3 crystallises readily - a prerequisite for structural analysis by x-ray crystallography.


  1. ^ Alexopoulou L, Holt A, Medzhitov R, Flavell R (2001). "Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptor 3.". Nature 413 (6857): 732-8. PMID 11607032.
  2. ^ Choe J, Kelker M, Wilson I (2005). "Crystal structure of human toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ectodomain.". Science 309 (5734): 581-5. PMID 15961631.

Further reading

  • Lien E, Ingalls RR (2002). "Toll-like receptors.". Crit. Care Med. 30 (1 Suppl): S1-11. PMID 11782555.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "TLR_3". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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