To use all functions of this page, please activate cookies in your browser.

my.chemeurope.com

With an accout for my.chemeurope.com you can always see everything at a glance – and you can configure your own website and individual newsletter.

- My watch list
- My saved searches
- My saved topics
- My newsletter

## Thermodynamic processA ## Additional recommended knowledgeThe pressure-volume conjugate pair is concerned with the transfer of mechanical or dynamic energy as the result of work. - An
**isobaric process**occurs at constant pressure. An example would be to have a movable piston in a cylinder, so that the pressure inside the cylinder is always at atmospheric pressure, although it is isolated from the atmosphere. In other words, the system is**dynamically connected**, by a movable boundary, to a constant-pressure reservoir.
- An
**isochoric process**is one in which the volume is held constant, meaning that the work done by the system will be zero. It follows that, for the simple system of two dimensions, any heat energy transferred to the system externally will be absorbed as internal energy. An isochoric process is also known as an**isometric**process or an**isovolumetric**process. An example would be to place a closed tin can containing only air into a fire. To a first approximation, the can will not expand, and the only change will be that the gas gains internal energy, as evidenced by its increase in temperature and pressure. Mathematically, δ*Q*=*d**U*. We may say that the system is**dynamically insulated**, by a rigid boundary, from the environment.
The temperature-entropy conjugate pair is concerned with the transfer of thermal energy as the result of heating. - An
**isothermal process**occurs at a constant temperature. An example would be to have a system immersed in a large constant-temperature bath. Any work energy performed by the system will be lost to the bath, but its temperature will remain constant. In other words, the system is**thermally connected**, by a thermally conductive boundary to a constant-temperature reservoir.
- An
**adiabatic process**is a process in which there is no energy added or subtracted from the system by heating or cooling. For a reversible process, this is identical to an isentropic process. We may say that the system is**thermally insulated**from its environment and that its boundary is a thermal insulator. If a system has an entropy which has not yet reached its maximum equilibrium value, the entropy will increase even though the system is thermally insulated.- An
**isentropic process**occurs at a constant entropy. For a reversible process this is identical to an adiabatic process. If a system has an entropy which has not yet reached its maximum equilibrium value, a process of cooling may be required to maintain that value of entropy.
- An
- An
**isenthalpic process**introduces no change in enthalpy in the system.
The above have all implicitly assumed that the boundaries are also impermeable to particles. We may assume boundaries that are both rigid and thermally insulating, but are permeable to one or more types of particle. Similar considerations then hold for the (chemical potential)-(particle number) conjugate pairs. ## See alsoCategories: Thermodynamic processes | Thermodynamics |

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Thermodynamic_process". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. |