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Twodimensional gasA twodimensional gas is a collection of N objects which are constrained to move in a planar or other twodimensional space in a gaseous state. The objects can be: ideal gas elements such as rigid disks undergoing elastic collisions; elementary particles, or any object in physics which obeys laws of motion. The concept of a twodimensional gas is used either because: (a) the issue being studied actually takes place in two dimensions (as certain surface molecular phenomena); or, the twodimensional form of the problem is more tractable than the analogous more mathematically complex threedimensional problem. While physicists have studied simple two body interactions on a plane for centuries, the attention given to the twodimensional gas (having many bodies in motion) is a 20th century pursuit. Applications have led to better understanding of gas thermodynamics, certain solid state problems and several questions in quantum mechanics. Additional recommended knowledge
Classical mechanicsResearch at Princeton University^{[1]} in the early 1960s posed the question of whether the MaxwellBoltzmann statistics and other thermodynamic laws could be derived from Newtonian laws applied to multibody systems rather than through the conventional methods of statistical mechanics. While this question appears intractable from a threedimensional closed form solution, the problem behaves differently in twodimensional space. In particular an ideal twodimensional gas was examined from the standpoint of relaxation time to equilibrium velocity distribution given several arbitrary initial conditions of the ideal gas. Relaxation times were shown to be very fast: on the order of mean free time . In 1996 a computational approach was taken to the classical mechanics nonequilbrium problem of heat flow within a twodimensional gas^{[2]}. This simulation work showed that for N>1500, good agreement with continuous systems is obtained. Electron gas
While the principle of the cyclotron to create a twodimensional array of electrons has existed since 1934, the tool was originally not really used to analyze interactions among the electrons (e.g. twodimensional gas dynamics). An early research investigation to explore a twodimensional electron gas^{[3]} with respect to cyclotron resonance behavior and the de Haasvan Alphen effect. The investigator was able to demonstrate for a twodimensional gas, the de Haasvan Alphen oscillation period is independent of the shortrange electron interactions. Later applications to Bose gasIn 1991 a theoretical proof was made that a Bose gas can exist in two dimensions^{[4]}. In the same work an experimental recommendation was made that could verify the hypothesis. Experimental research with a molecular gasStranick used an ultrahigh vacuum scanning microscope to image a two dimensional benzene gas layer in contact with a planar solid interface at 77 kelvins^{[5]}. The experimenters were able to observe benzene molecules moving freely as a twodimensional gas on the surface of Cu(III), to which a planar monomolecular film of solid benzene adhered. Thus the scientists could witness the equilibrium of the gas in contact with its solid state, even by observing transient migration and phase transition of individual benzene molecules. Implications for future researchA multiplicity of theoretical physics research directions exist for study via a twodimensional gas. Examples of these are
References
See alsoCategories: Gases  Nonequilibrium thermodynamics  Statistical mechanics 

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Twodimensional_gas". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. 