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List of chemical element name etymologies

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Name Symbol Explanations
Actinium Ac From the Greek, "ακτίς" (aktis, aktina, aktinos), means "beam (ray)".
Aluminium Al From the Latin, "alumen", means "alum".
Americium Am Named for the "Americas", because was discovered in the United States (by analogy with Europium)
Antimony Sb Possibly from the Greek, "αντι μόνος" (anti monos), approximately means "opposed to solitude", as it was believed never to exist in pure form, or (anti-monachos), (the French "antimoine", still has adherents) would means "monk-killer", because early alchemists being monks and antimony being poisonous. May also be derived from the Pharaonic (Ancient Egypt), "Antos Ammon" (expression), which could be translated as "bloom of the god Ammon".
The symbol Sb is from Latin name, Stibium. The word derived from the Greek, "στιμμί" (stimmi), is probably a loan word from Arabic or Egyptian. Littré suggests the first form derives from "stimmida", (one) accusative for "stimmi". The Arabic word for the substance, as "mark" or "the cosmetic", can appear as "ithmid", "athmoud", "othmod" or "uthmod". [1]
Argon Ar From the Greek, "αργό(ν)", means "inactive" (literally "lazy").
Arsenic As From the Greek, "" (arsenikon), derived from the Persian, "زرنيخ" (zarnik), means "yellow orpiment".
Astatine At From the Greek, "αστατεο" (astateo), means "unstable". [2]


Name Symbol Explanations
Barium Ba From the Greek, "βαρυς" (barys), means "heavy". The oxide was initially called "barote", then "baryta", which was modified to "barium" to describe the metal.
Berkelium Bk Named for the "University of California, Berkeley", where discovered.
Beryllium Be From the Greek, "" (beryllos), denoting beryl, which contains beryllium. [3]
Bismuth Bi From the Modern Latin, "bisemutum", derived from the German, "Wismuth", perhaps from "weiße Masse", means "white mass", due to its appearance.
Bohrium Bh Named in honor of "Niels Bohr", who made fundamental understanding of atomic structure and quantum mechanics. .[4] It sometimes has ever been call 'Eka-rhenium.[5]
Boron B From the Arabic, "لاعقشا" (buraq), derived from the Persian, "بورون"(burah) referring to borax.
Bromine Br From the Greek, "βρωμος" (brómos), means "stench", due to its characteristic smell.


Name Symbol Explanations
Cadmium Cd From the Latin, "cadmia", derived from the Greek, "καδμεία" (kadmeia), means "calamine", a Cadmium-bearing mixture of minerals.
Caesium Cs From the Latin, "caesius", means "sky blue". Its identification was based upon the bright blue lines in its spectrum and it was the first element discovered by spectrum analysis.
Calcium Ca From the Latin, "calx", means "lime". Calcium was known of as early as the first century when the Ancient Romans prepared lime as calcium oxide.
Californium Cf Named for "California", the U.S. state of California and for the University of California, Berkeley, which is nicknamed "Cal".
Carbon C From the French, "charbone", which in turn came from the Latin, "carbo", means "charcoal". (In the German and the Dutch, Kohlenstoff and Koolstof, respectively, both literally means "coal-stuff")
Cerium Ce Named after the asteroid, "Ceres", discovered two years earlier. (The asteroid was named after "Ceres", the goddess of fertile on mythology) [6]
Chlorine Cl From the Greek, "χλώρος" (chlorós), means "yellowish green" or "greenish yellow", because of the color of the gas.
Chromium Cr From the Greek, "" (chroma), means color, because of many colorful of compounds.
Cobalt Co From the German, "kobalt", means "evil spirit", the metal being so called by miners, because it was poisonous and troublesome (polluted and degraded the other mined elements, like Nickel). Other sources cite the origin as stemming from silver miners' belief that cobalt had been placed by "Kobolds" who had stolen the silver. Some also think the name may be derive from the Greek, "" (kobalos), which means "mine", and which may have common roots with kobold, goblin, and cobalt.
Copper Cu Possibly derived from the Greek, "χαλκός" (chalkos), means "Copper (the metal)". May also be derived from the Latin (during the Roman empire), "aes cyprium", ("aes" being the generic Latin term for copper alloys such as bronze, etc.) "cyprium" means Cyprus, where so much of it was mined in. The phrase "cyprium" was simplified to "cuprum" and then eventually Anglicized into the English "copper".
Curium Cm Named in honor of "Marie Curie" and "Pierre Curie", who discovered Radium and developed radioactivity works.


Name Symbol Explanations
Darmstadtium Ds Named for "Darmstadt", where discovered (GSI, located in Wixhausen, a small suburb north of Darmstadt).
It sometimes has ever been call 'Eka-platinum.[7] [5]
Dubnium Db Named for "Dubna", where discovered (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, U.S.S.R.). Researchers of Berkeley) propose Hahnium (Ha), named in honor of Otto Hahn, who pioneered to radioactivity and radiochemistry, but the proposal was rejected. [4]
Dysprosium Dy Derived from the Greek, "δυσπροσιτοσ" (dysprositos), means "hard to get at".


Name Symbol Explanations
Einsteinium Es Named in honor of "Albert Einstein", who served to theoretical physics, discover law of the photoelectric effect.
Erbium Er Named after "Erbia", the village of Ytterby in Sweden, where large concentrations of Yttria and Erbium are located. Erbia and terbia were confused in at this time. After 1860, what had been known as Terbia was renamed Erbia, and after 1877, what had been known as Erbia was renamed Terbia.
Europium Eu Named for "Europe", the continent where discovered.


Name Symbol Explanations
Fermium Fm Named in honor of "Enrico Fermi", who developed the first nuclear reactor, quantum theory, nuclear and particle physics, and statistical mechanics.
Fluorine F From the "Fluorspar", ore of its compound.
Francium Fr Named for "France", where discovered (Curie Institute (Paris)).


Name Symbol Explanations
Gadolinium Gd Named in honor of "Johan Gadolin", who found of Nordic chemistry research, discovered Yttrium, and pioneered laboratory exercise teaching. (by the same taken, Gadolinite, the mineral)
Gallium Ga From the Latin, "gallia", means "Gaul" (Ancient France), and also "gallus", means "rooster". The element was obtained became free metal by Lecoq de Boisbaudran, who named Gallium after France, his native land, and one of those multilingual puns, also after himself, as "Lecoq", means "the rooster", to Latin, "gallus".

Gallium has ever been called Eka-aluminium.[5]

Germanium Ge From the Latin, "Germania", means "Germany". Germanium has ever been called Eka-silicon.[5]
Gold Au From the Anglo-Saxon, "gold".
The symbol Au is from Latin name, Aurum, means "shining dawn". [8]


Name Symbol Explanations
Hafnium Hf From the Latin, "Hafnia", means "Copenhagen" of Denmark.
Hassium Hs Named derived from the Latin, "Hassia", means Hesse, the German state where discovered (Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt).[4] It sometimes has ever been call 'Eka-osmium.[5]
Helium He Named after the Greek, "ἥλιος" (Helios), means "Sun" and also "the god of Sun on mythology. [6]
Holmium Ho Named derived from the Latin, "Holmia", means Stockholm.
Hydrogen H From the Latin, "hydor genes", derived from the Ancient Greek, "ὕδωρ γείνομαι" (hydor geinomai), means "to beget water", because of commonly chemical compound.


Name Symbol Explanations
Indium In Named after "indigo", because of indigo spectrum line.
Iodine I Named after the Greek, "ιοδες" (iodes), means "violet", because of the color of the gas.
Iridium Ir Named after the Latin, "iris", means "of rainbows", because many of salts are strongly colored. and also "Iris", the goddess of rainbow and messenger on Greek mythology [6]
Iron Fe Speculate that "iron" (īsern) derives from the Etruscan, (aisar), means "the god(s)", because in first significant age of iron usefulness (Sumerians and Egyptians, around 4000 BC), a few items (such as the tips of spears, daggers and ornaments) were being fashioned from iron recovered from meteorites, and meteorites fall from the sky. [9]
The symbol Fe is from the Latin, "Ferrum", means "iron".


Name Symbol Explanations
Krypton Kr From the Greek, "κρυπτόσ" (kryptos), means "hidden one", because of a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas (unlike other noble gas).


Name Symbol Explanations
Lanthanum La From the Greek, "" (lanthanein), means "to lie (hidden)".
Lawrencium Lr Named in honor of "Ernest O. Lawrence", who led to invent cyclotron.
The symbol Lr since 1963, The former symbol Lw was used. Unniltrium was used as a temporary systematic element name.[4]
Lead Pb
The symbol Pb is from Latin name, Plumbum, Latin root of The English, "plumbing". [10] [6]
Lithium Li From the Greek, "λιθος" (lithos), means "stone", because it was discovered from a mineral while other common alkali metals (Sodium and Potassium) were discovered from plant tissue.
Lutetium Lu Named after the Latin, "Lutetia", means "Paris". [4]


Name Symbol Explanations
Magnesium Mg From the Ancient Greek, "Μαγνήσια" (Magnesia), (district in Thessaly) where discovered.
Manganese Mn From the Latin, "magnes", means "magnet", about Magnetite or magnetic property.
Meitnerium Mt Named in honor of Lise Meitner, who shared discovered nuclear fission. [4] It sometimes has ever been call 'Eka-iridium.[5]
Mendelevium Md Named in honor of Dmitri Mendeleyev, who invented periodic table. [11] It sometimes has ever been call 'Eka-thulium.[5]
Mercury Hg Named after "Mercury", the god of speed and thinking on mythology. (Also, the "Mercury (planet)" named after the god)
The symbol Hg is from Greek name, ὕδωρ αργυρος (hydor argyros), and descended to the Latin name, Hydrargyrum, means "water - silver", because it be liquid like water, and has silvery metallic sheen. [12] [6]
Molybdenum Mo From the Greek, "μόλυβδος" (molybdos), means "(like) lead".


Name Symbol Explanations
Neodymium Nd Derived from the Greek, "νεος διδύμος" (neos didymos), means "new twin", because Didymium separated into Praseodymium and Neodymium, both gave salts of different colors. [13]
Neon Ne From the Greek, "νέος" (neos), means "new".
Neptunium Np Named for "Neptune", the planet. (The planet was named after "Neptune", the god of oceans on mythology) [6]
Nickel Ni Possibly from the German, "Kupfernickel", means "Niccolite", the ore that was attempting to extract Copper but obtained instead Nickel.
Niobium Nb Named after "Niobe", daughter of Tantalus (on mythology). [6] [4]
Nitrogen N From the Latin, "nitrum genes", derived from the Greek, "νιτρον γείνομαι" (nitron geinomai), means "native-soda (niter) forming". [14]
Nobelium No Named in honor of Alfred Nobel, who invented dynamite and institute the Nobel Prizes foundation.


Name Symbol Explanations
Osmium Os From the Greek, "οσμε" (osme), means "a smell".
Oxygen O From the Greek, "χούς γείνομαι" (oxys geinomai), means "acid to bring forth", as he believed it to be an essential component of acids.


Name Symbol Explanations
Palladium Pd Named after "Pallas", the asteroid was discovered two years earlier. (The asteroid was named after "Pallas (Athena)" (an alternate name of Athena), the goddess of wisdom and victory on mythology) [6]
Phosphorus P From the Greek, "φωσ φόρος" (phós phoros), means "light bearer", because "White Phosphorus" emits a faint glow upon exposure to Oxygen
The word "Phosphorus" was ancient name for the "Venus (planet)" as Hesperus (Morning Star). [6]
Platinum Pt From the Spanish, "platina", means "little silver", because it was first encountered in Silver mine.
Plutonium Pu Named after "Pluto", the planet, because it was discovered directly after Neptunium (Neptunium higher than Uranium on periodic table), so them was named by analogy with the ordering of the planets. (The planet "Pluto" ,now be dwarf planet, was named after "Pluto", the god of the dead's world on mythology) [6]
Polonium Po Named after "Poland", home land of Marie Curie who discovered. Also was called Radium F.
Potassium K From the English, "potash", means "pot-ash" (Potassium compound prepared from "an alkali extracted in a pot from the ash of burnt wood or tree leaves).
The symbol K is from Latin name, Kalium, was named derived from "alkali", became from the Arabic "بوتاسيوم" (al qalīy), means "the calcined ashes".
Praseodymium Pr From the Greek, "πρασιος διδύμος" (prasios didymos), means "green twin", because Didymium separated into Praseodymium and Neodymium, both gave salts of different colors.
Promethium Pm Named after "Prometheus", who stole the fire of the heaven and gave it to mankind (on mythology). [6]
Protactinium Pa Derived from former name Protoactinium, from "proto actinium". [15]


Name Symbol Explanations
Radium Ra From the Latin, "radius", means "ray", because of radioactive.
Radon Rn Named after "Radium", because of Radium emanation that produce Radon.
Radon has ever been called Niton (Nt) from the Latin, "nitens", means "shining", but the name was rejected.
Rhenium Re From the Latin, "Rhenus", means "Rhine", the river.
Rhodium Rh From the Greek, "ρόδόν" (rhodon), means "rose".
Roentgenium Rg Named in honour of Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, who produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range (x-rays). It sometimes has ever been call 'Eka-gold.[5]
Rubidium Rb From the Latin, "rubidus", means "deepest red", because of color of metal through spectroscope.
Ruthenium Ru From the Latin, "Ruthenia", means "Russia".
Rutherfordium Rf Named in honor of Baron Ernest Rutherford, who pioneered the Bohr_model of the atom. Rutherfordium has ever been called Kurchatovium (Ku), named in honor of Igor Vasilevich Kurchatov, who shared discovered fundamental understanding of the Uranium chain reaction and the nuclear reactor. [4]


Name Symbol Explanations
Samarium Sm Named after "Samarskite", the mineral. ("Samarskite" was named after "Colonel Vasili Samarsky-Bykhovets", a Russian mine official)
Scandium Sc Named from the Latin, "Scandia", means "Scandinavia". Scandium has ever been called Eka-boron.[5]
Seaborgium Sg Named in honor of "Glenn T. Seaborg", who discovered the chemistry of the transuranium elements, shared discovered and isolated 10 elements, developed and proposed the actinide series. IUPAC adopted Unnilhexium ('Unh) as a temporary, systematic element name. [4] It sometimes has ever been call Eka-tungsten.[5]
Selenium Se From the Greek, "σελήνη" (selene), means "Moon" and also "Selene", the goddess of Moon. [6]
Silicon Si From the Latin, "silex" or "silicis", means "flint", a kind of stone.
Silver Ag From the Anglo-Saxon, "seolfor", compare Old High German "silabar".
The symbol Ag is possibly from Latin name, Argentum, means about "Aegean", because of evidence on islands of the Aegean Sea.
Sodium Na From the English, "soda", because of relation about caustic soda, soda ash, baking soda and other Sodium compounds.
The symbol Na is from Modern Latin name, Natrium, derived from the Greek, "νιτρον" (nítron), means "natural soda", a kind of salt. (In medieval Europe, Sodanum is Latin name of "a compound of sodium")
Strontium Sr Named after "Strontianite", the mineral. ("Strontianite" was named after "the town of Strontian", the source of the mineral in Scotland)
Sulfur S Almost certainly from the Arabic, "كبريت" (sufra), means "yellow", the bright color of the naturally occurring form. The word be descented into the Sanskrit, "गन्धक" (sulvere or sulvari), the Latin, "sulpur", the English, "sulfur", and also was commonly referred as "brimstone" in Bible, giving rise to the name of "Fire and brimstone", which are sermons where hell and eternal damnation for sinners is stressed.


Name Symbol Explanations
Tantalum Ta Named after the Greek, "ταντάλυς" (Tantalus), who was punished after death by being condemned to stand knee-deep in water, if he bent to drink the water, it drained below the level he could reach (on Greek mythology), this was considered similar to tantalum's general non-reactivity because of the inertness (it sits among reagents and is unaffected by them). [6]
Technetium Tc From the Greek, τεχνητός (technetos), meaning "artificial", because of the first predominantly artificial element. Technetium has been called Eka-manganese.[5]
Tellurium Te From the Latin, "Tellus", means "Earth" and also "Terra Mater", the goddess personifying the Mother Earth in Roman mythology [6]
Terbium Tb Named after "Ytterby", the village in Sweden where discovered.
Thallium Tl From Greek, "θαλλός" (thallos), means "a green shoot (twig)", because of bright green spectral emission lines.
Thorium Th Named after "Thor", the god of thunder on Norse mythology. [6]
The former name Ionium (Io) was given early in the study of radioactive elements to Th-230 isotope.
Thulium Tm Named after "Thule", an ancient Roman name for a mythical country in the far north, perhaps Scandinavia. By the same taken, Thulia, its oxide.
Tin Sn Borrowed from a Proto-Indo-European language, and has cognates in several Germanic and Celtic languages. [16]
The symbol Sn is from Latin name Stannum.
Titanium Ti From the Latin, "titan", means "Earth" and also "Titans", the first sons of Gaia on mythology. [6]
Tungsten W From the Swedish and Danish, "tung sten", means "heavy stone". The symbol W is from scientific name, Wolfram. The element and its ore, "Wolframite", was named in honor of "Peter Woulfe", who discovered its existence. Even though Wolfram or Volfram is the current name in Swedish and several language.


Name Symbol Explanations
Unnilhexium Sg see: Seaborgium
Unniloctium Hs see: Hassium
Unnilpentium Du see: Dubnium
Unnilquadium Rf see: Rutherfordium
Unniltrium Lr see: Lawrencium
Ununoctium Uuo Ununoctium is a IUPAC systematic element name. Sometimes call Eka-radon.[5]
Ununbium Uub Ununbium is a IUPAC systematic element name. Sometimes call Eka-mercury.[5]
Ununhexium Uuh Ununhexium is a IUPAC systematic element name. Sometimes call Eka-polonium.[5]
Ununnilium Ds see: Darmstadtium
Ununpentium Uup Ununpentium is a IUPAC systematic element name. Sometimes call Eka-bismuth.[5]
Ununquadium Uuq Ununquadium is a IUPAC systematic element name. Sometimes call Eka-lead.[5] Lead
Ununseptium Uus Ununseptium has not yet been discovered. Sometimes call Eka-astatine.[5]
Ununtrium Uut Ununtrium is a IUPAC systematic element name. Sometimes call Eka-tallium.[5]
Unununium Rg see: Roentgenium
Uranium U Named after "Uranus", the planet had been discovered eight years earlier. (The planet was named after "Uranus", the god of sky and heaven on Greek mythology) [6]


Name Symbol Explanations
Vanadium V Named after "Vanadis", a goddess on Scandinavian mythology, because of beautiful multicolored chemical compounds. [6]


Name Symbol Explanations
Xenon Xe From the Greek, "ξένος" (xenos), means "foreign, a stranger".


Name Symbol Explanations
Ytterbium Yb Named after Ytterbia, the compound of Ytterbium. (The compound Ytterbia was named after Ytterby, the Swedish village (near Vaxholm) where found the minerals Gadolinite) [4]
Yttrium Y Named after Yttria, the (oxide) compound of Yttrium. (The compound Yttria was named after Ytterby, the village where found the minerals Gadolinite) [4]


Name Symbol Explanations
Zinc Zn From the German, "Zink". May be derived from Old Persian.
Zirconium Zr From the Arabic, "ئشقنعى" (zarkûn). Derived from the Persian, "زرگون" (zargûn), means "gold like".

Notes and References

  1. ^ Antimony,
    • LSJ, s.v., vocalisation, spelling, and declension vary; Endlich; Celsus, 6.6.6 ff; Pliny Natural History 33.33; Lewis and Short: Latin Dictionary. OED, s. "antimony".
    • "stimmi" is used by the Attic tragic poets of the 5th century BC. Later Greeks also used "stibi", which is written in Latin by Celsus and Pliny in the first century AD. Pliny also names "stimi" (sic-m), "larbaris", "alabaster", "very common platyophthalmos", "wide-eye" (means about effect of the cosmetic). In Egyptians hieroglyphics, "" (mśdmt), the vowels are uncertain, but there is an Arabic tradition that "" (mesdemet) (Albright; Sarton, quotes Meyerhof, the translator)
  2. ^ Astatine, An earlier name for Astatine was Alabamine (Ab)
  3. ^ Beryllium, At one time beryllium was referred to as Glucinium, which from the Greek, "" (glykys), means "sweet", due to the sweet taste of its salts.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l see Naming controversy below
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Previous to discovery of some unknown elements, Prof. Dmitri Mendeleev predicted and described most of them appropriately properties, and fill the gaps in the table, on the basis of them position in his Periodic table. The properties of 4 predicted elements, Eka-boron (Eb), Eka-aluminium (El), Eka-manganese (Em), and Eka-silicon (Es), proved to be good predictors of Scandium, Gallium, Technetium and Germanium, respectively. The prefix "eka-", from the Sanskrit, means "one" (places down from the known element in table), and is sometimes used in discussions about undiscovered elements, such as, Untriennium was referred into Eka-actinium. see also : Mendeleev's predicted elements
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Some elements (particularly ancient elements) was associated with Greek (or Roman or others) gods or people, on Greek mythology (or other mythology), and with planets (or others in solar system), such as Mercury (mythology) - Mercury (planet) - Mercury (element), etc.
    Also, astrological symbols (for the planets) (particularly ancient elements) also often used same each ancient alchemical symbols (for the element or its metal).
  7. ^ Darmstadtium, some humorous scientists suggested the name Policium, because 110 is the emergency telephone number for the German police.
  8. ^ Gold, the Sanskrit of India, "jval". the Greek, "χρυσος" (khrusos). the Chinese, 金 (jīn).
  9. ^ Iron, Benvéniste 1969 cit. dep
  10. ^ Lead, Lead was mentioned in the Book of Exodus of Bible. Alchemists expect that Lead was the oldest metal and associated the element with Saturn (planet).
  11. ^ Mendelevium, "Mendeleyev" commonly spelt as Mendeleev, Mendeléef, or Mendelejeff, and first name sometimes spelt as Dmitry or Dmitriy
  12. ^ Mercury, The Indian alchemy called Rassayana, means "the way of mercury".
  13. ^ Neodymium, is frequently misspelled as neodynium
  14. ^ Nitrogen, Pure gas is inert enough that Antoine Lavoisier referred to it as "Azote", means "without life", so this term has become the French for Nitrogen and later spread out to many other languages.
  15. ^ Protactinium, Kasimir Fajans and Otto H. Göhring ,who identified, name the element 91 Brevium from the Latin, "brevis", means "brief, short" in 1913. The name was changed to "Protoactinium" in 1918 and shortened to Protactinium in 1949.
  16. ^ Tin, The American Heritage Dictionary

Naming controversy

At the time of its discovery, There was an element naming controversy as to what (particularly) the elements from 101 to 109 were to be called. At last, a committee of International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) resolve the dispute and adopte one name. All the way to, adopted a temporary systematic element name.

  • About element 41 & 74,

Hatchett named element 41 Columbium (Cb), but IUPAC officially adopted Niobium in 1950 after 100 years of controversy. This was a compromise of sorts, the IUPAC accepted, Tungsten instead of Wolfram (in deference to North American usage) and Niobium instead of Columbium (in deference to European usage).

However, while many leading chemical societies and government organizations refer to it by the official IUPAC name, but many leading metallurgists, metal societies, and most leading American commercial producers still refer to the metal by the Columbium (for Niobium), and by the same taken in many countries of Europe, still refer to the metal by the Wolfram (for Tungsten).

  • About element 70 & 71,

Gadolinite, the mineral (from Ytterby, the village), consist several compounds (the oxides or earths) as Yttria, Erbia (sub-component as Ytterbia) and Terbia.

In 1878 Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac assumed that Ytterbia consist a new element he ahead called Ytterbium. (but actually, there were 2 new elements) In 1907 Georges Urbain isolated element 70 and element 71 from Ytterbia. He called element 70 Neoytterbia (means "new Ytterbium") and called element 71 Lutecia. At about the same time, Carl Auer von Welsbach also independently isolated these and proposed the names Aldebaranium, after the star Aldebaran of Taurus (constellation), for the element 70 (Ytterbium), and Cassiopium, after the Cassiopeia (constellation), for element 71 (Lutetium), but both proposals were rejected.

Latest Neoytterbia (element 70) was eventually reverted back to Ytterbium (follow Marignac) and in 1949 the spelling of Lutetium (element 71) was changed to Lutetium. Although German chemists still call Cassiopium instead of Lutetium.

(Another element, as Yttrium (element 39) and Gadolinium (element 64), was also discovered in Gadolinite and its components. No controversy on its names)

  • About element 103,

IUPAC ratified the name Lawrencium (Lr) during a meeting in Geneva, the name was preferred by the American Chemical Society.

  • About element 104,

Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, (U.S.S.R.) named Kurchatovium (K-260). But, University of California, Berkeley, U.S.A. named Rutherfordium in honor of Lord Rutherford of Nelson). In 1994 a committee of IUPAC recommended that element 104 be named Rutherfordium.

  • About element 105,

Joint Nuclear Research Institute in Dubna named Dubnium after Dubna. But, University of California in Berkeley also named Hahnium in honor of Otto Hahn. IUPAC recommended that element 105 be named Dubnium.

  • About element 105 & 107,

Some suggested the name Nielsbohrium (named in honor of Niels Bohr), others believed this name should be given to element 105 (Dubnium) , the name too like element 107 (Bohrium) . IUPAC adopted Unnilseptium (Uns) as a temporary systematic element name. In 1994 a committee of IUPAC recommended that element 107 be named Bohrium.

While this conforms to the names of other elements honoring individuals, where only the surname is taken, it was opposed by many who were concerned that it could be confused with Boron . Despite this, the name Bohrium for element 107 was recognized internationally in 1997.

  • About element 106,

The element was discovered almost simultaneously by 2 different laboratories, in June 1974, a Soviet team led by G. N. Flerov at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna reported producing an isotope 111-259, in September 1974, an American research team led by Albert Ghiorso at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley reported creating an isotope 111-263. Because their work was independently confirmed first, the Americans suggested the name Seaborgium to honor of Glenn T. Seaborg, the American chemist. But this name was extremely controversial because Seaborg was still alive.

An international committee decided in 1992 that the Berkeley and Dubna laboratories should share credit for the discovery. An element naming controversy erupted and as a result IUPAC adopted Unnilhexium (Unh) as a temporary, systematic element name.

In 1994 a committee of IUPAC adopted a rule that no element can be named after a living person. This ruling was fiercely objected to by the American Chemical Society.

Critics pointed out that a precedent had been set in the naming of Einsteinium during Albert Einstein's life. In 1997, as part of a compromise involving elements 104 to 108, the name Seaborgium for element 106 was recognized internationally.

  • About element 108,

IUPAC adopted Unniloctium (Uno) as a temporary, systematic element name. In 1994 a committee of IUPAC recommended that element 108 be named Hassium, and the name was adopted internationally, in 1997.

  • About element 109,

IUPAC adopted Unnilennium (Une) as a temporary, systematic element name. In 1997 a committee of IUPAC resolved the dispute and adopted be name Meitnerium.

  • About element 110,

IUPAC adopted Ununnilium (Uun) as a temporary, systematic element name. Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany, who discovered, recommended that element 110 be named Darmstadtium In August 2003 a committee of IUPAC adopted the name.

  • About element 111,

The element has ever been known under the temporary IUPAC systematic element name, Unununium. Some research has referred to it as Eka-gold, means "below Gold ", on hypothesis of Mendeleev's predicted elements. IUPAC accepted the name Roentgenium on November 1 2004.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "List_of_chemical_element_name_etymologies". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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