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2-Arachidonoylglycerol



2-Arachidonoylglycerol
IUPAC name (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl icosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoate
Other names 2-AG, 2-arachidonoylglycerol
Identifiers
CAS number 53847-30-6
Properties
Molecular formula C23H38O4
Molar mass 378.6 g/mol
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is an endocannabinoid, an endogenous agonist of the CB1 receptor.[1][2] It is an ester formed from the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid and glycerol. Unlike anandamide, 2-AG is present at relatively high levels in the central nervous system; it is the most abundant molecular species of monoacylglycerol found in rat brain.[2][3] Formation of 2-AG is calcium-dependent and is mediated by the activities of phospholipase C (PLC) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAG).[2] 2-AG acts as a full agonist at the CB1 receptor.[4] At a concentration of 0.3 nM, 2-AG induces a rapid, transient increase in intracellular free calcium in NG108-15 neuroblastoma X glioma cells through a CB1 receptor-dependent mechanism.[2] 2-AG is metabolized in vitro by monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) and fatty acid amide hydrolase, with MGL likely being the principle metabolizing enzyme in vivo.[4]

Additional recommended knowledge

It has been found in maternal bovine and human milk.[5]


References

  1. ^ Stella, N., Schweitzer, P., Piomelli, D. A second endogenous cannabinoid that modulates long-term potentiation. Nature 388 773-778 (1997).
  2. ^ a b c d Sugiura, T., Kodaka, T., Nakane, S., et al. Evidence that the cannabinoid CB1 receptor is a 2-arachidonoylglycerol receptor. Structure-activity relationship of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, ether-linked analogues, and related compounds. J Biol Chem 274 2794-2801 (1999).
  3. ^ Kondo, S., Kondo, H., Nakane, S., et al. 2-Arachidonoylglycerol, an endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonist: Identification as one of the major species of monoacylglycerols in various rat tissues, and evidence for its generation through Ca2+-dependent and -independent mechanisms. FEBS Lett 429 152-156 (1998).
  4. ^ a b Savinainen, J. R., Jarvinen, T., Laine, K. and Laitinen, J. T. Despite substantial degradation, 2-arachidonoylglycerol is a potent full efficacy agonist mediating CB(1) receptor-dependent G-protein activation in rat cerebellar membranes. Br. J. Pharmacol. 134, 664–672(2001).
  5. ^ Fride E, Bregman T, Kirkham TC. (April 2005). "PEndocannabinoids and food intake: newborn suckling and appetite regulation in adulthood.". Experimental Biology and Medicine 230 (4): 225-234. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020286. PMID 15792943.
  • Dinh, T.P., Carpenter, D., Leslie, F.M., et al. Brain monoglyceride lipase participating in endocannabinoid inactivation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99(16) 10819-10824 (2002).


 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "2-Arachidonoylglycerol". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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