My watch list  

List of molecules in interstellar space

This is a list of molecules that have been detected in the interstellar medium, grouped by the number of component atoms. The chemical formula is listed for each detected compound, along with any ionized form that has also been observed.



The molecules listed below were detected by spectroscopy. Their spectral features are generated by transitions of component electrons between different energy levels, or by rotational or vibrational spectra. Detection usually occurs in radio, microwave, or infrared portions of the spectrum.[1] The first such molecule to be detected in the interstellar medium was the methylidyne radical (CH) in 1937.[2]

Interstellar molecules are formed by chemical reactions within very sparse interstellar or circumstellar clouds of dust and gas. Usually this occurs when a molecule becomes ionized, often as the result of an interaction with a cosmic ray. This positively-charged molecule then draws in a nearby reactant by electrostatic attraction of the neutral molecule's electrons. Molecules can also be generated by reactions between neutral atoms and molecules, although this process is generally slower.[1]

A particularly large and rich region for detecting interstellar molecules is Sagittarius B2 (Sgr B2). This giant molecular cloud lies near the center of the Milky Way galaxy and is a frequent target for new searches. About half of the molecules listed below were first found near Sgr B2, and nearly every other molecule has since been detected in this feature.[3]


The following tables list molecules that have been detected in the interstellar medium, grouped by the number of component atoms. If there is no entry in the Molecule column, only the ionized form has been detected. For molecules where no designation was given in the scientific literature, that field is left empty.


Table 1. Diatomic
AlClAluminum monochloride[5][6]
AlFAluminum monofluoride[7][5]
C2Carbon dimer[8][9]
CHMethylidyne radical[11]CH+[12]
CNCyanogen radical[13][14][5][11]
COCarbon monoxide[5]CO+[15]
CPCarbon monophosphide[14]
CSCarbon monosulfide[5]
FeOIron(II) oxide[16]
H2Molecular hydrogen[17]
HClHydrogen chloride[18]
HFHydrogen fluoride[19]
HNNitrogen monohydride[20]
HOHydroxyl radical[5]
KClPotassium chloride[5][6]
N2Molecular nitrogen[21]
NONitric oxide[22]
NSNitrogen sulfide[5]
NaClSodium chloride[5][6]
O2Molecular oxygen[23]
PNPhosphorus nitride[24]
POPhosphorus monoxide[25]
SHSulfur hydride[26]SH+[27]
SOSulfur monoxide[5]SO+[12]
SiNSilicon mononitride[5]
SiOSilicon monoxide[5]
SiSSilicon monosulfide[5]


Table 2. Triatomic
AlNCAluminum isocyanide[5]
C2HEthynyl radical[5][13]
C2ODicarbon monoxide[30]
CO2Carbon dioxide[32]
Protonated molecular hydrogenH3+[33]
H2SHydrogen sulfide[5]
HCNHydrogen cyanide[36][5][13]
HCOFormyl radical[37]HCO+[38][37][12]
HNCHydrogen isocyanide[40]
KCNPotassium cyanide[5]
MgCNMagnesium cyanide[5]
MgNCMagnesium isocyanide[5]
NH2Amino radical[42]
N2ONitrous oxide[44]
NaCNSodium cyanide[5]
OCSCarbonyl sulfide[45]
SO2Sulfur dioxide[46][5] 
c-SiC2c-Silicon dicarbide[5][28]
SiCNSilicon carbonitride[47]
SiNCSilicon naphthalocyanine[48]


Table 3. Four atoms
C3OTricarbon monoxide[50]
H2CNMethylene amidogen[55]H2CN+[12]
Protonated hydrogen cyanideHCNH+[38]
Protonated carbon dioxideHOCO+[59]
HNCOIsocyanic acid[46]
HNCSIsothiocyanic acid[60]
SiC3Silicon tricarbide[5] 


Table 4. Five atoms
Protonated formaldehydeH2COH+[68]
HCOOHFormic acid[65]
SiC4Silicon-carbide cluster[28]


Table 5. Six atoms
CH3NCMethyl isocyanide[76]
Protonated cyanoacetyleneHC3NH+[38]


Table 6. Seven atoms
c-C2H4OEthylene oxide[81]
H2CHCOHVinyl alcohol[80]
Table 7. Eight atoms
HCOOCH3Methyl formate[85][46][65]
CH3COOHAcetic acid[86]
C7HHeptatrienyl radical[87]


Table 8. Nine atoms
CH3OCH3Dimethyl Ether[89]
CH3CH2OHTrans-Ethyl Alcohol[90]
C8HOctatetraynyl[91] C8H[92][93]
CH3CHCH2Propylene (propene)[96] 
Table 9. Ten or more atoms
12CH3OC2H5Trans-ethyl methyl ether[98]

Deuterated molecules

See also: Deuterium
Table 10. Molecules containing a deuterium atom
HD, H2D+Deuterated molecular hydrogen[99][100]
HDO, D2OHeavy water[101][102]
DCNHydrogen cyanide[103]
DCOFormyl radical[103]
DNCHydrogen isocyanide[103]
NH2D, NHD2, ND3Ammonia[100][104][105]
HDCO, D2COFormaldehyde[106][100]
CH2DCCH, CH3CCDMethylacetylene[107][108]


The following molecules have been reported as detected in scientific literature, but they have not yet been confirmed through subsequent searches.

Table 11. Unconfirmed molecules

See also


  1. ^ a b Nummelin, Albert (2006-07-13). Observations of interstellar molecules. Chalmers University of Technology. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  2. ^ Woon, D. E. (May, 2005). Methylidyne radical. The Astrochemist. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  3. ^ S. E. Cummins, R. A. Linke, P. Thaddeus (1986). "A survey of the millimeter-wave spectrum of Sagittarius B2". Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 60: 819-878. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  4. ^ The Structure of Molecular Cloud Cores. Centre for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, University of Kent. Retrieved on 2007-02-16.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am Ziurys, Lucy M. (2006). "The chemistry in circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars: Following the origin of the elements to the origin of life". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (33): 12274-12279.
  6. ^ a b c J. Cernicharo, M. Guelin (1987). "Metals in IRC+10216 - Detection of NaCl, AlCl, and KCl, and tentative detection of AlF". Astronomy and Astrophysics 183 (1): L10-L12.
  7. ^ L. M. Ziurys, A. J. Apponi, T. G. Phillips (1994). "Exotic fluoride molecules in IRC +10216: Confirmation of AlF and searches for MgF and CaF". Astrophysical Journal 433 (2): 729-732.
  8. ^ D. L. Lambert, Y. Sheffer, S. R. Federman (1995). "Hubble Space Telescope observations of C2 molecules in diffuse interstellar clouds". Astrophysical Journal 438: 740-749.
  9. ^ a b c G. A. Galazutdinov, F. A. Musaev, J. Krelowski (2001). "On the detection of the linear C5 molecule in the interstellar medium". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 325: 1332-1334. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  10. ^ D. A. Neufeld, P. Schilke, K. M. Menten, M. G. Wolfire, J. H. Black, F. Schuller, H. S. P. Müller, S. Thorwirth, R. Güsten, S. Philipp (2006). "Discovery of interstellar CF+". Astronomy and Astrophysics 454 (2): L37-L40. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  11. ^ a b Adams, Walter S. (1941). "Some Results with the COUDÉ Spectrograph of the Mount Wilson Observatory". Astrophysical Journal 93: 11-23. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Smith, D. (1988). "Formation and Destruction of Molecular Ions in Interstellar Clouds". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 324 (1578): 257-273. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g A. Fuente, S. García-Burillo, M. Gerin, D. Teyssier, A. Usero, J. R. Rizzo, P. de Vicente (2005). "Photon-dominated Chemistry in the Nucleus of M82: Widespread HOC+ Emission in the Inner 650 Parsec Disk". Astrophysical Journal 619 (2): L155-L158.
  14. ^ a b M. Guelin, J. Cernicharo, G. Paubert, B. E. Turner (1990). "Free CP in IRC + 10216". Astronomy and Astrophysics 230: L9-L11.
  15. ^ W. B. Latter, C. K. Walker, P. R. Maloney (1993). "Detection of the Carbon Monoxide Ion (CO +) in the Interstellar Medium and a Planetary Nebula". Astrophysical Journal Letters 419: L97.
  16. ^ R. S. Furuya, C. M. Walmsley, K. Nakanishi, P. Schilke, R. Bachiller (2003). "Interferometric observations of FeO towards Sagittarius B2". Astronomy and Astrophysics 409: L21-L24. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  17. ^ Adams, Walter S. (1970). "Rocket Observation of Interstellar Molecular Hydrogen". Astrophysical Journal 161: L81-L85. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  18. ^ G. A. Blake, J. Keene, T. G. Phillips (1985). "Chlorine in dense interstellar clouds - The abundance of HCl in OMC-1". Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 295: 501-506. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  19. ^ D. A. Neufeld, J. Zmuidzinas, P. Schilke, T. G. Phillips (1997). "Discovery of Interstellar Hydrogen Fluoride". Astrophysical Journal 488 (2): L141–L144.
  20. ^ D. M. Meyer, K. C. Roth (1991). "Discovery of interstellar NH". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters 376: L49-L52. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  21. ^ "Astronomers Detect Molecular Nitrogen Outside our Solar System for the First Time", Goddard Space Flight Center, June 9, 2004. Retrieved on 2006-12-20. 
  22. ^ D. McGonagle, W. M. Irvine, Y. C. Minh, L. M. Ziurys (1990). "Detection of nitric oxide in the dark cloud L134N". Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 359: 121-124. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  23. ^ Staff writers. "Elusive oxygen molecule finally discovered in interstellar space",, March 27, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-02. 
  24. ^ L. M. Ziurys (1987). "Detection of interstellar PN - The first phosphorus-bearing species observed in molecular clouds". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor 321: L81-L85. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  25. ^ E. D. Tenenbaum, N. J. Woolf, L. M. Ziurys (2007). "Identification of phosphorus monoxide (X ² Pi r) in VY Canis Majoris: Detection of the first PO bond in space". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor 666: L29-L32.
  26. ^ T. J. Millar, N. G. Adams, D. Smith, W. Lindinger, H. Villinger (1986). "Identification of SH v=1 Ro-vibrational Lines in R Andromedae". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 221: 673-678. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  27. ^ T. J. Millar, N. G. Adams, D. Smith, W. Lindinger, H. Villinger (1986). "The chemistry of SH(+) in shocked interstellar gas". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 221: 673-678. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  28. ^ a b c G. Pascoli, M. Comeau (1995). "Silicon Carbide in Circumstellar Environment". Astrophysics and Space Science 226: -149-163.
  29. ^ Oka, Takeshi (2006). "Interstellar H3+". Procedings of the National Academy of Science 103 (33): 12235-12242. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  30. ^ M. Ohishi, S.-I. Ishikawa, C. Yamada, H. Kanamori, W. M. Irvine, R. D. Brown, P. D. Godfrey, N. Kaifu, H. Suzuki (1991). "Detection of a new carbon-chain molecule, CCO". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters 380: L39-L42. Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
  31. ^ a b c d W. M. Irvine, L. M. Ziurys, L. W. Avery, H. E. Matthews, P. Friberg (1988). "Newly detected molecules in dense interstellar clouds". Astrophysical Letters and Communications 26: 167-180. Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
  32. ^ D. C. B. Whittet, H. J. Walker (1991). "On the occurrence of carbon dioxide in interstellar grain mantles and ion-molecule chemistry". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 252: 63-67. Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
  33. ^ Oka, Takeshi (2006). "Interstellar H3+". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (33): 12235-12242.
  34. ^ J. M. Hollis, P. R. Jewell, F. J. Lovas (1995). "Confirmation of interstellar methylene". Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 438: 259-264. Retrieved on 2007-02-08.
  35. ^ Europe's space telescope ISO finds water in distant places. ESO (April 29, 1997). Retrieved on 2007-02-08.
  36. ^ L. E. Snyder, D. Buhl (1971). "First Detection of Vibrationally Excited HNC in Space". Astrophysical Journal 163: L47-L52. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  37. ^ a b M. S. Schenewerk, L. E. Snyder, A. Hjalmarson (1986). "Interstellar HCO - Detection of the missing 3 millimeter quartet". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor 303: L71-L74. Retrieved on 2007-02-08.
  38. ^ a b c d e f K. Kawaguchi, Y. Kasai, S.-I. Ishikawa, M. Ohishi, N. Kaifu, T. Amano (1994). "Detection of a new molecular ion HC3NH(+) in TMC-1". Astrophysical Journal 420: L95.
  39. ^ Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Guélin, M. (2007). "Discovery of Phosphaethyne (HCP) in Space: Phosphorus Chemistry in Circumstellar Envelopes". The Astrophysical Journal 662 (2). Retrieved on 2007-06-02.
  40. ^ P. Schilke, C. Comito, S. Thorwirth (2003). "First Detection of Vibrationally Excited HNC in Space". The Astrophysical Journal 582: L101–L104. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  41. ^ J. M. Hollis, L. E. Snyder, L. M. Ziurys, D. McGonagle (1991). "Interstellar HNO: Confirming the Identification". Atoms, ions and molecules: New results in spectral line astrophysics 16: 407-412, San Francisco: ASP. Retrieved on 2007-02-07. 
  42. ^ E.F. van Dishoeck, D.J. Jansen, P. Schilke, T. G. Phillips (1993). "Detection of the Interstellar NH 2 Radical". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters 416: L83-L86. Retrieved on 2007-02-08.
  43. ^ M. Womack, L. M. Ziurys, S. Wyckoff (1992). "A survey of N2H(+) in dense clouds - Implications for interstellar nitrogen and ion-molecule chemistry". Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 387: 417-429. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  44. ^ L. M. Ziurys, A. J. Apponi, J. M. Hollis, L. E. Snyder (1994). "Detection of interstellar N2O: A new molecule containing an N-O bond". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters 436: L181-L184. Retrieved on 2007-02-08.
  45. ^ P. F. Goldsmith, R. A. Linke (1981). "A study of interstellar carbonyl sulfide". Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 245: 482-494. Retrieved on 2007-02-08.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j L. E. B. Johansson, C. Andersson, J. Ellder, P. Friberg, A. Hjalmarson, B. Hoglund, W. M. Irvine, H. Olofsson, G. Rydbeck (1984). "Spectral scan of Orion A and IRC+10216 from 72 to 91 GHz". Astronomy and Astrophysics 130 (2): 227-256.
  47. ^ M. Guélin, S. Muller, J. Cernicharo, A. J. Apponi, M. C. McCarthy, C. A. Gottlieb, P. Thaddeus (2004). "Astronomical detection of the free radical SiCN". Astronomy and Astrophysics 363: L9-L12. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
  48. ^ M. Guélin, S. Muller, J. Cernicharo, M. C. McCarthy, P. Thaddeus (2004). "Detection of the SiNC radical in IRC+10216". Astronomy and Astrophysics 426: L49-L52. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
  49. ^ L. E. Snyder, D. Buhl, B. Zuckerman, P. Palmer (1999). "Microwave Detection of Interstellar Formaldehyde". Physical Review Letters 61 (2): 77-115. Retrieved on 2007-02-16.
  50. ^ a b W. M. Irvine, P. Friberg, Å. Hjalmarson, L. E. B. Johansson, P. Thaddeus, R. D. Brown, P. D. Godfrey (1984). "Confirmation of the Existence of Two New Interstellar Molecules: C3H and C3O". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 16: 877. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
  51. ^ J. G. Mangum, A. Wootten (1990). "Observations of the cyclic C3H radical in the interstellar medium". Astronomy and Astrophysics 239: 319-325. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
  52. ^ M. B. Bell, H. E. Matthews (1995). "Detection of C3N in the spiral arm gas clouds in the direction of Cassiopeia A". Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 438: 223-225. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  53. ^ A. Wootten, B. E. Turner, J. G. Mangum, M. Bogey, F. Boulanger, F. Combes, P. J. Encrenaz, M. Gerin (1991). "Detection of interstellar H3O(+) - A confirming line". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters 380: L79-L83. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  54. ^ a b c Betz, A. L. (1981). "Ethylene in IRC +10216". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor 244: -L105.
  55. ^ M. Ohishi, D. McGonagle, W.M. Irvine, S. Yamamoto, S. Saito (1994). "Detection of a new interstellar molecule, H2CN". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters 427: L51-L54. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
  56. ^ S. Aiello, L. Morbidelli, L. Ulivi (1981). "Far UV radiation transfer and H2CO lifetime in dense interstellar clouds". Astrophysics and Space Science 80: 173-187. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  57. ^ Y. C. Minh, W. M. Irvine, M. K. Brewer (1991). "H2CS abundances and ortho-to-para ratios in interstellar clouds". Astronomy and Astrophysics 244: 181-189. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  58. ^ M. Guelin, J. Cernicharo (1991). "Astronomical detection of the HCCN radical - Toward a new family of carbon-chain molecules?". Astronomy and Astrophysics 244: L21-L24. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
  59. ^ Y. C. Minh, W. M. Irvine, L. M. Ziurys (1988). "Observations of interstellar HOCO(+) - Abundance enhancements toward the Galactic center". Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 334: 175-181. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
  60. ^ M. A. Frerking, R. A. Linke, P. Thaddeus (1979). "Interstellar isothiocyanic acid". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor 234: L143-L145. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
  61. ^ a b Nguyen-Q-Rieu, D. Graham, V. Bujarrabal (1984). "Ammonia and cyanotriacetylene in the envelopes of CRL 2688 and IRC + 10216". Astronomy and Astrophysics 138 (1): L5-L8.
  62. ^ A. L. Butterworth,O. Aballain, J. Chappellaz, M. A. Sephton (2004). "Combined element (H and C) stable isotope ratios of methane in carbonaceous chondrites". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 347 (3): 807-812. Retrieved on 2007-02-16.
  63. ^ J. H. Lacy, J. S. Carr, N. J. Evans, II, F. Baas, J. M. Achtermann, J. F. Arens (1991). "Discovery of interstellar methane - Observations of gaseous and solid CH4 absorption toward young stars in molecular clouds". Astrophysical Journal 376: 556-560.
  64. ^ a b c d e f g Finley, Dave (August 7, 2006). Researchers Use NRAO Telescope to Study Formation Of Chemical Precursors to Life. National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
  65. ^ a b c d e f g D. Fossé, J. Cernicharo, M. Gerin, P. Cox (2001). "Molecular Carbon Chains and Rings in TMC-1". Astrophysical Journal 552: 168–174. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  66. ^ W. M. Irvine, P. Friberg, A. Hjalmarson, S. Ishikawa, N. Kaifu, K. Kawaguchi, S. C. Madden, H. E. Matthews, M. Ohishi, S. Saito, H. Suzuki, P. Thaddeus, B. E. Turner, S. Yamamoto, L. M. Ziurys (1988). "Identification of the interstellar cyanomethyl radical (CH2CN) in the molecular clouds TMC-1 and Sagittarius B2". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters 334: L107-L111. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  67. ^ J. E. Dickens, W. M. Irvine, C. H. De Vries, M. Ohishi (1997). "Hydrogenation of Interstellar Molecules: A Survey for Methylenimine (CH 2NH)". Astrophysical Journal 479: 307. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  68. ^ M. Ohishi, S.-I. Ishikawa, T. Amano, H. Oka, W.M. Irvine, J. E. Dickens, L. M. Ziurys, A. J. Apponi (1996). "Detection of a New Interstellar Molecular Ion, H 2COH + (Protonated Formaldehyde)". Astrophysical Journal 471: L61. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  69. ^ Cernicharo, J.; Guélin, M.; Agündez, M.; Kawaguchi, K.; McCarthy, M.; Thaddeus, P. (2007). "Astronomical detection of C4H, the second interstellar anion". Astronomy and Astrophysics 61 (2): L37-L40. Retrieved on 2007-06-02.
  70. ^ a b C. M. Walmsley, G. Winnewisser, F. Toelle (1990). "Cyanoacetylene and cyanodiacetylene in interstellar clouds". Astronomy and Astrophysics 81 (1-2): 245-250.
  71. ^ K. Kawaguchi, M. Ohishi,S.-I. Ishikawa, N. Kaifu (1992). "Detection of isocyanoacetylene HCCNC in TMC-1". Astrophysical Journal 386 (2): L51-L53.
  72. ^ B. E. Turner, H. S. Liszt, N. Kaifu, A. G. Kisliakov (1975). "Microwave detection of interstellar cyanamide". Astrophysical Journal 201: L149-L152.
  73. ^ D. M. Goldhaber, A. L. Betz (1984). "Silane in IRC +10216". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor 279: -L55-L58.
  74. ^ a b c J. M. Hollis, F. J. Lovas, A. J. Remijan, P. R. Jewell, V. V. Ilyushin, ;I. Kleiner (2006). "Detection of Acetamide (CH3CONH2): The Largest Interstellar Molecule with a Peptide Bond". Astrophysical Journal 643 (1): L25-L28.
  75. ^ J. M. Hollis, A. J. Remijan, P. R. Jewell, F. J. Lovas (2006). "Cyclopropenone (c-H2C3O): A New Interstellar Ring Molecule". Astrophysical Journal 642: 933-939.
  76. ^ a b c d e A. J. Remijan, J. M. Hollis, F. J. Lovas, D. F. Plusquellic, P. R. Jewell (2005). "Interstellar Isomers: The Importance of Bonding Energy Differences". Astrophysical Journal 632: 333–339.
  77. ^ D. L. Lambert, Y. Sheffer, S. R. Federman (1979). "Interstellar methyl mercaptan". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor 234: L139-L142.
  78. ^ a b c J. Cernicharo, A. M. Heras, A. G. G. M. Tielens, J. R. Pardo, F. Herpin, M. Guélin, L. B. F. M. Waters (1997). "Infrared Space Observatory's Discovery of C4H2, C6H2, and Benzene in CRL 618". Astrophysical Journal 546 (2): L123–L126.
  79. ^ W. M. Irvine, R. D. Brown, D. M. Cragg, P. Friberg, P. D. Godfrey, N. Kaifu, H. E. Matthews, M. Ohishi, H. Suzuki, H. Takeo (1988). "A new interstellar polyatomic molecule - Detection of propynal in the cold cloud TMC-1". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters 335: L89-L93.
  80. ^ a b "Scientists Toast the Discovery of Vinyl Alcohol in Interstellar Space", National Radio Astronomy Observatory, October 1, 2001. Retrieved on 2006-12-20. 
  81. ^ a b J. E. Dickens, W. M. Irvine, M. Ohishi, M. Ikeda, S. Ishikawa, A. Nummelin, A. Hjalmarson (1997). "A New Interstellar Cyclic Molecule, Ethylene Oxide". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 29: 1245.
  82. ^ N. Kaifu, K. Takagi, T. Kojima (1975). "Excitation of interstellar methylamine". Astrophysical Journal 198: L85-L88.
  83. ^ M. C. McCarthy, C. A. Gottlieb, H. Gupta, P. Thaddeus (2006). "Laboratory and Astronomical Identification of the Negative Molecular Ion C6H-". Astrophysical Journal 652 (2): L141-L144.
  84. ^ a b F. J. Lovas, Anthony J. Remijan, J. M. Hollis, P. R. Jewell, L. E. Snyder (2006). "Hyperfine Structure Identification of Interstellar Cyanoallene toward TMC-1". Astrophysical Journal 637 (2): L37–L40.
  85. ^ a b Sincell, Mark (June 27, 2006). The Sweet Signal of Sugar in Space. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved on 2006-12-20.
  86. ^ a b D. M. Mehringer, L. E. Snyder, Y. Miao, F. J. Lovas (1997). "Detection and Confirmation of Interstellar Acetic Acid". Astrophysical Journal Letters 480: L71. Retrieved on 2007-02-16.
  87. ^ M. Guelin, J. Cernicharo, M. J. Travers, M. C. McCarthy, C. A. Gottlieb, P. Thaddeus, M. Ohishi, S. Saito, S. Yamamoto (1997). "Detection of a new linear carbon chain radical: C7H.". Astronomy and Astrophysics 317: L37-L40.
  88. ^ a b A. J. Remijan, J. M. Hollis, L. E. Snyder, P. R. Jewell, F. J. Lovas (2006). "Methyltriacetylene (CH3C6H) toward TMC-1: The Largest Detected Symmetric Top". Astrophysical Journal 643 (1): L37-L40.
  89. ^ Z. Peeters, S. D. Rodgers, S. B. Charnley, L. Schriver-Mazzuoli, A. Schriver, J. V. Keane, P. Ehrenfreund (2006). "Astrochemistry of dimethyl ether". Astronomy and Astrophysics 445 (1): 197-204.
  90. ^ B. Zuckerman, B. E. Turner, D. R. Johnson, F. J. Lovas, N. Fourikis, P. Palmer, M. Morris, A. E. Lilley, J. A. Ball, F. O. Clark (1975). "Detection of interstellar trans-ethyl alcohol". Astrophysical Journal 196 (2): L99-L102.
  91. ^ J. Cernicharo, M. Guelin (1996). "Discovery of the C8H radical.". Astronomy and Astrophysics 309: L26-L30.
  92. ^ H. Brünken, H. Gupta, C. A. Gottlieb, M. C. McCarthy, P. Thaddeus (2007). "Detection of the Carbon Chain Negative Ion C8H in TMC-1". Astrophysical Journal 664 (1): L43-L46.
  93. ^ A. J. Remijan, J. M. Hollis, F. J. Lovas, M. A. Cordiner, T. J. Millar, A. J. Markwick-Kemper, P. R. Jewell (2007). "Detection of C8H and Comparison with C8H toward IRC +10 216". Astrophysical Journal 664 (1): L47-L50.
  94. ^ H. W. Kroto, C. Kirby, D. R. M. Walton, L. W. Avery, N. W. Broten, J. M. MacLeod, T. Oka (2002). "The detection of cyanohexatriyne in Heiles's cloud 2". The Astrophysical Journal 219: L133-L137.
  95. ^ a b c M. B. Bell, P. A. Feldman, M. J. Travers, M. C. McCarthy, C. A. Gottlieb, P. Thaddeus (1997). "Detection of HC11N in the Cold Dust Cloud TMC-1". Astrophysical Journal 483 (2): L61–L64.
  96. ^ N. Marcelino, J. Cernicharo, M. Agúndez, E. Roueff, M. Gerin, J. Martín-Pintado, R. Mauersberger and C. Thum (2007). "Discovery of Interstellar Propylene (CH2CHCH3): Missing Links in Interstellar Gas-Phase Chemistry". Astrophysical Journal 665: L127–L130.
  97. ^ L. E. Snyder, F. J. Lovas, D. M. Mehringer, N. Y. Miao, Y.-J. Kuan, J. M. Hollis, P. R. Jewell (2002). "Confirmation of Interstellar Acetone". The Astrophysical Journal 578 (1): 245–255.
  98. ^ G. W. Fuchs, U. Fuchs, T. F. Giesen, F. Wyrowski (2005). "Trans-ethyl methyl ether in space. A new look at a complex molecule in selected hot core regions". Astronomy and Astrophysics 444 (2): 521-530.
  99. ^ S. Lacour, M. K. André, P. Sonnentrucker, F. Le Petit, D. E. Welty, J.-M. Desert, R. Ferlet, E. Roueff, D. G. York (2005). "Deuterated molecular hydrogen in the Galactic ISM. New observations along seven translucent sightlines". Astronomy and Astrophysics 430: 967-977.
  100. ^ a b c Ceccarelli, Cecilia (2002). "Millimeter and infrared observations of deuterated molecules". Planetary and Space Science 50 (12-13): 1267-1273.
  101. ^ Green, Sheldon (1989). "Collisional excitation of interstellar molecules - Deuterated water, HDO". Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 70: 813-831.
  102. ^ H. M. Butner, S. B. Charnley, C. Ceccarelli, S. D. Rodgers, J. R. Pardo, B. Parise, J. Cernicharo, G. R. Davies (2007). "Discovery of interstellar heavy water". Astrophysical Journal 659: L137-L140.
  103. ^ a b c d B. E. Turner, B. Zuckerman (1978). "Observations of strongly deuterated molecules - Implications for interstellar chemistry". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor 225: L75-L79. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  104. ^ D. C. Lis, E. Roueff, M. Gerin, T. G. Phillips, L. H. Coudert, F. F. S. van der Tak, P. Schilke (/2002). "Detection of Triply Deuterated Ammonia in the Barnard 1 Cloud". Astrophysical Journal 571 (1): L55-L58.
  105. ^ J. Hatchell (/2003). "High NH2D/NH3 ratios in protostellar cores". Astronomy and Astrophysics 403: L25-L28.
  106. ^ Turner, B. E. (1990). "Detection of doubly deuterated interstellar formaldehyde (D2CO) - an indicator of active grain surface chemistry". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters 362: L29-L33. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  107. ^ M. Gerin, F. Combes, G. Wlodarczak, P. Encrenaz, C. Laurent (1992). "Interstellar detection of deuterated methyl acetylene". Astronomy and Astrophysics 253 (2): L29-L32. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  108. ^ A. J. Markwick, S. B. Charnley, H. M. Butner, T. J. Millar (2005). "Interstellar CH3CCD". The Astrophysical Journal 627 (2): L117-L120. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  109. ^ Y. J. Kuan, S.B. Charnley, H.-C. Huang, W.-L. Tseng, Z. Kisiel (2003). "Interstellar Glycine". Astrophysical Journal 593 (2): 848-867.
  110. ^ L. E. Snyder, F. J. Lovas, J. M. Hollis, D. N. Friedel, P. R. Jewell, A. Remijan, V. V. Ilyushin, E. A. Alekseev, S. F. Dyubko (2005). "A Rigorous Attempt to Verify Interstellar Glycine". Astrophysical Journal 619 (2): 914-930.
  111. ^ S. L. Widicus Weaver, G. A. Blake (2005). "1,3-Dihydroxyacetone in Sagittarius B2(N-LMH): The First Interstellar Ketose". Astrophysical Journal 624 (2): L33–L36.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "List_of_molecules_in_interstellar_space". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
Your browser is not current. Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 does not support some functions on Chemie.DE