Porphyria cutanea tarda
Classification & external resources
Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is the most common subtype of porphyria. The disorder results from low levels of the enzyme responsible for the fifth step in heme production. Heme is a vital molecule for all of the body's organs. It is a component of hemoglobin, the molecule that carries oxygen in the blood.
Additional recommended knowledge
When signs and symptoms occur, they usually begin in adulthood and result from the skin becoming overly sensitive to sunlight. Areas of skin exposed to the sun develop severe blistering, scarring, changes in pigmentation, and increased hair growth. Exposed skin becomes fragile and is easily damaged. People with porphyria cutanea tarda also have increased iron levels in the liver. They face a higher risk of developing abnormal liver function and liver cancer.
In the acquired form, the signs and symptoms of this condition are triggered by nongenetic factors such as alcohol abuse, excess iron, certain hormones, and viral infections. However, in the inherited form of the disease, which affects up to 20% of PCT patients, the condition arises from a mutation in the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase gene, although environmental and chemical factors may trigger or exacerbate symptoms.
This type of porphyria occurs in an estimated 1 in 25,000 people, including both inherited and sporadic (noninherited) cases. An estimated 80 % of porphyria cutanea tarda cases are sporadic. The exact frequency is not clear because many people with the condition never experience symptoms.
Inherited mutations in the UROD gene cause about 20 % of cases (the other 80 % of cases do not have mutations in UROD, and are classified as sporadic). UROD makes an enzyme called uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase, which is critical to the chemical process that leads to heme production. The activity of this enzyme is usually reduced by 50 % in all tissues in people with the inherited form of the condition.
Nongenetic factors such as alcohol abuse, excess iron, and others listed above can increase the demand for heme and the enzymes required to make heme. The combination of this increased demand and reduced activity of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase disrupts heme production and allows byproducts of the process to accumulate in the body, triggering the signs and symptoms of porphyria cutanea tarda.
The HFE gene makes a protein that helps cells regulate the absorption of iron from the digestive tract and into the cells of the body. Certain mutations in the HFE gene cause hemochromatosis (an iron overload disorder). People who have these mutations are also at an increased risk of developing porphyria cutanea tarda.
In the 20% of cases where porphyria cutanea tarda is inherited, it is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene is sufficient to decrease enzyme activity and cause the signs and symptoms of the disorder.
Chloroquine and venesection can be part of a management strategy.
Porphyria Cutanea Tarda is also the name of a song by the punk band AFI on their album Black Sails in the Sunset.
- ^ Fracanzani AL, Taioli E, Sampietro M, Fatta E, Bertelli C, Fiorelli G, Fargion S (2001). "Liver cancer risk is increased in patients with porphyria cutanea tarda in comparison to matched control patients with chronic liver disease". J Hepatol 35 (4): 498-503. PMID 11682034.
- ^ Sarkany RP (2001). "The management of porphyria cutanea tarda". Clin Exp Dermatol 26 (3): 225-32. PMID 11422163.
- Kauppinen R (2005). "Porphyrias". Lancet 365 (9455): 241-52. PMID 15652607.
- Lecha M, Herrero C, Ozalla D (2003). "Diagnosis and treatment of the hepatic porphyrias". Dermatol Ther 16 (1): 65-72. PMID 12919129.
- Nordmann Y, Puy H (2002). "Human hereditary hepatic porphyrias". Clin Chim Acta 325 (1-2): 17-37. PMID 12367763.
- Sassa S (2002). "The porphyrias". Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 18 (2): 56-67. PMID 12147038.
- "Porphyria Cutanea Tarda" Porphyria South Africa, University of Cape Town/Groote Schurr Hospital
|Pemphigus vulgaris, Bullous pemphigoid, Porphyria cutanea tarda, Dermatitis herpetiformis, Bullous lupus erythematosus, Drug reaction|
|Metabolic pathology / Inborn error of metabolism (E70-90, 270-279)|
|Amino acid||Aromatic (Phenylketonuria, Alkaptonuria, Ochronosis, Tyrosinemia, Albinism, Histidinemia) - Organic acidemias (Maple syrup urine disease, Propionic acidemia, Methylmalonic acidemia, Isovaleric acidemia, 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency) - Transport (Cystinuria, Cystinosis, Hartnup disease, Fanconi syndrome, Oculocerebrorenal syndrome) - Sulfur (Homocystinuria, Cystathioninuria) - Urea cycle disorder (N-Acetylglutamate synthase deficiency, Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency, Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, Citrullinemia, Argininosuccinic aciduria, Hyperammonemia) - Glutaric acidemia type 1 - Hyperprolinemia - Sarcosinemia|
|Carbohydrate||Lactose intolerance - Glycogen storage disease (type I, type II, type III, type IV, type V, type VI, type VII) - fructose metabolism (Fructose intolerance, Fructose bisphosphatase deficiency, Essential fructosuria) - galactose metabolism (Galactosemia, Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase galactosemia, Galactokinase deficiency) - other intestinal carbohydrate absorption (Glucose-galactose malabsorption, Sucrose intolerance) - pyruvate metabolism and gluconeogenesis (PCD, PDHA) -
Pentosuria - Renal glycosuria|
|Lipid storage||Sphingolipidoses/Gangliosidoses: GM2 gangliosidoses (Sandhoff disease, Tay-Sachs disease) - GM1 gangliosidoses - Mucolipidosis type IV - Gaucher's disease - Niemann-Pick disease - Farber disease - Fabry's disease - Metachromatic leukodystrophy - Krabbe disease|
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (Batten disease) - Cerebrotendineous xanthomatosis - Cholesteryl ester storage disease (Wolman disease)
|Fatty acid metabolism||Lipoprotein/lipidemias: Hyperlipidemia - Hypercholesterolemia - Familial hypercholesterolemia - Xanthoma - Combined hyperlipidemia - Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency - Tangier disease - Abetalipoproteinemia |
Fatty acid: Adrenoleukodystrophy - Acyl-coA dehydrogenase (Short-chain, Medium-chain, Long-chain 3-hydroxy, Very long-chain) - Carnitine (Primary, I, II)
|Mineral||Cu Wilson's disease/Menkes disease - Fe Haemochromatosis - Zn Acrodermatitis enteropathica - PO43�' Hypophosphatemia/Hypophosphatasia - Mg2+ Hypermagnesemia/Hypomagnesemia - Ca2+ Hypercalcaemia/Hypocalcaemia/Disorders of calcium metabolism|
and acid-base balance
|Electrolyte disturbance - Na+ Hypernatremia/Hyponatremia - Acidosis (Metabolic, Respiratory, Lactic) - Alkalosis (Metabolic, Respiratory) - Mixed disorder of acid-base balance - H2O Dehydration/Hypervolemia - K+ Hypokalemia/Hyperkalemia - Cl�' Hyperchloremia/Hypochloremia|
|Purine and pyrimidine||Hyperuricemia - Lesch-Nyhan syndrome - Xanthinuria|
|Porphyrin||Acute intermittent, Gunther's, Cutanea tarda, Erythropoietic, Hepatoerythropoietic, Hereditary copro-, Variegate|
|Bilirubin||Unconjugated (Lucey-Driscoll syndrome, Gilbert's syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome) - Conjugated (Dubin-Johnson syndrome, Rotor syndrome)|
|Glycosaminoglycan||Mucopolysaccharidosis - 1:Hurler/Hunter - 3:Sanfilippo - 4:Morquio - 6:Maroteaux-Lamy - 7:Sly|
|Glycoprotein||Mucolipidosis - I-cell disease - Pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy - Aspartylglucosaminuria - Fucosidosis - Alpha-mannosidosis - Sialidosis|
|Other||Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency - Cystic fibrosis - Amyloidosis (Familial Mediterranean fever) - Acatalasia|