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List of phytochemicals and foods in which they are prominent

While there is ample evidence to support the health benefits of diets rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts, evidence that these effects are due to specific nutrients or phytochemicals is limited. [1]

The following is a list of phytochemicals present in commonly consumed foods.


Phenolic compounds

Terpenes (isoprenoids)

  • Carotenoids (tetraterpenoids)
    • Carotenes - orange pigments
      • α-Carotene – to vitamin A, in carrots, pumpkins, maize, tangerine, orange.
      • β-Carotene – to vitamin A, in dark, leafy greens and red, orange and yellow fruits and vegetables.
      • γ-Carotene
      • δ-Carotene
      • Lycopene – tomatoes, grapefruit, watermelon, guava, apricots, carrots.
      • Neurosporene
      • Phytofluene – star fruit, sweet potato, orange.
      • Phytoene – sweet potato, orange.
    • Xanthophylls - yellow pigments.
      • Canthaxanthinpaprika.
      • Cryptoxanthin – mango, tangerine, orange, papaya, peaches, avocado, pea, grapefruit, kiwi.
      • Zeaxanthin – spinach, kale, turnip greens, maize, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, oranges.
      • Astaxanthin – microalge, yeast, krill, shrimp, salmon, lobsters, and some crabs
      • Lutein – spinach, turnip greens, romaine lettuce, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, mango, papaya, oranges, kiwi, peaches, squash, legumes, brassicates, prunes, sweet potatoes, honeydew melon, rhubarb, plum, avocado, pear.
      • Rubixanthin – rose hips.


  • Dithiolthiones (isothiocyanates)
    • Sulphoraphane – Brassicales.
  • Thiosulphonates (allium compounds)
    • Allyl methyl trisulfide – garlic, onions, leeks, chives, shallots.
    • Diallyl sulfide – garlic, onions, leeks, chives, shallots.

Indoles (glucosinolates)

Protein inhibitors

Other organic acids

  • Oxalic acid – orange, spinach, rhubarb, tea and coffee, banana, ginger, almond, sweet potato, bell pepper.
  • Phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate) – cereals, nuts, sesame seeds, soybeans, wheat, pumpkin, beans, almonds.
  • Tartaric acid – apricots, apples, sunflower, avocado, grapes.


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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "List_of_phytochemicals_and_foods_in_which_they_are_prominent". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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