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Sp1 transcription factor
PDB rendering based on 1sp1.
Available structures: 1sp1, 1sp2, 1va1, 1va2, 1va3
Symbol(s) SP1;
External IDs OMIM: 189906 MGI: 98372 Homologene: 8276
RNA expression pattern

More reference expression data

Human Mouse
Entrez 6667 20683
Ensembl ENSG00000185591 ENSMUSG00000001280
Uniprot P08047 O89090
Refseq NM_138473 (mRNA)
NP_612482 (protein)
NM_013672 (mRNA)
NP_038700 (protein)
Location Chr 12: 52.06 - 52.1 Mb Chr 15: 102.23 - 102.26 Mb
Pubmed search [1] [2]

Sp1 is a human transcription factor involved in gene expression in the early development of an organism. The protein is 785 amino acids long, with a molecular weight of 95 kDA. The full protein sequence can be found banked in the NCBI homepage, with the accession number NP_612482. The SP1 transcription factor contains a zinc finger protein motif, by which it binds directly to DNA and enhances gene transcription. Its zinc fingers are of the Cys2/His2 type and binds the consensus sequence 5'-(G/T)GGGCGG(G/A)(G/A)(C/T)-3' (GC box element). It was discovered in 1983 and has since been modified to form Sp1C, which has a zinc finger protein DNA binding domain.

In the SV40 virus, Sp1 binds to the GC boxes in the regulatory region(RR) of the genome.

Further Reading

  • Dreier B, Beerli R, Segal D, Flippin J, Barbas C (2001). "Development of zinc finger domains for recognition of the 5'-ANN-3' family of DNA sequences and their use in the construction of artificial transcription factors". J Biol Chem 276 (31): 29466-78. PMID 11340073.
  • Tseng L, Gao J, Mazella J, et al. (1997). "Differentiation-dependent and cell-specific regulation of the hIGFBP-1 gene in human endometrium.". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 828: 27-37. PMID 9329821.
  • Dyson N (1998). "The regulation of E2F by pRB-family proteins.". Genes Dev. 12 (15): 2245-62. PMID 9694791.
  • Zhang Y, Dufau ML (2003). "Dual mechanisms of regulation of transcription of luteinizing hormone receptor gene by nuclear orphan receptors and histone deacetylase complexes.". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 85 (2-5): 401-14. PMID 12943729.
  • Kino T, Pavlakis GN (2004). "Partner molecules of accessory protein Vpr of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1.". DNA Cell Biol. 23 (4): 193-205. doi:10.1089/104454904773819789. PMID 15142377.
  • Seelamgari A, Maddukuri A, Berro R, et al. (2006). "Role of viral regulatory and accessory proteins in HIV-1 replication.". Front. Biosci. 9: 2388-413. PMID 15353294.
  • Le Rouzic E, Benichou S (2006). "The Vpr protein from HIV-1: distinct roles along the viral life cycle.". Retrovirology 2: 11. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-2-11. PMID 15725353.
  • Kamine J, Chinnadurai G (1992). "Synergistic activation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter by the viral Tat protein and cellular transcription factor Sp1.". J. Virol. 66 (6): 3932-6. PMID 1583736.
  • Szpirer J, Szpirer C, Riviere M, et al. (1992). "The Sp1 transcription factor gene (SP1) and the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor gene (VDR) are colocalized on human chromosome arm 12q and rat chromosome 7.". Genomics 11 (1): 168-73. PMID 1662663.
  • Gumucio DL, Rood KL, Blanchard-McQuate KL, et al. (1991). "Interaction of Sp1 with the human gamma globin promoter: binding and transactivation of normal and mutant promoters.". Blood 78 (7): 1853-63. PMID 1912570.
  • Kamine J, Subramanian T, Chinnadurai G (1991). "Sp1-dependent activation of a synthetic promoter by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88 (19): 8510-4. PMID 1924310.
  • Courey AJ, Holtzman DA, Jackson SP, Tjian R (1990). "Synergistic activation by the glutamine-rich domains of human transcription factor Sp1.". Cell 59 (5): 827-36. PMID 2512012.
  • Harrich D, Garcia J, Wu F, et al. (1989). "Role of SP1-binding domains in in vivo transcriptional regulation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat.". J. Virol. 63 (6): 2585-91. PMID 2657100.
  • Jackson SP, Tjian R (1988). "O-glycosylation of eukaryotic transcription factors: implications for mechanisms of transcriptional regulation.". Cell 55 (1): 125-33. PMID 3139301.
  • Kadonaga JT, Carner KR, Masiarz FR, Tjian R (1988). "Isolation of cDNA encoding transcription factor Sp1 and functional analysis of the DNA binding domain.". Cell 51 (6): 1079-90. PMID 3319186.
  • Zhang R, Min W, Sessa WC (1995). "Functional analysis of the human endothelial nitric oxide synthase promoter. Sp1 and GATA factors are necessary for basal transcription in endothelial cells.". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (25): 15320-6. PMID 7541039.
  • Hagen G, Dennig J, Preiss A, et al. (1995). "Functional analyses of the transcription factor Sp4 reveal properties distinct from Sp1 and Sp3.". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (42): 24989-94. PMID 7559627.
  • Datta PK, Raychaudhuri P, Bagchi S (1995). "Association of p107 with Sp1: genetically separable regions of p107 are involved in regulation of E2F- and Sp1-dependent transcription.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 15 (10): 5444-52. PMID 7565695.
  • Wang L, Mukherjee S, Jia F, et al. (1995). "Interaction of virion protein Vpr of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with cellular transcription factor Sp1 and trans-activation of viral long terminal repeat.". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (43): 25564-9. PMID 7592727.
  • Howcroft TK, Palmer LA, Brown J, et al. (1995). "HIV Tat represses transcription through Sp1-like elements in the basal promoter.". Immunity 3 (1): 127-38. PMID 7621073.
  • Ferrari N, Desmarais D, Royal A (1995). "Transcriptional activation of the neuronal peripherin-encoding gene depends on a G + C-rich element that binds Sp1 in vitro and in vivo.". Gene 159 (2): 159-65. PMID 7622044.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Sp1". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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