| PDB rendering based on 2H24.
| Available structures: 1ilk, 1inr, 1j7v, 1lk3, 1vlk, 1y6k, 1y6m, 1y6n, 2h24, 2ilk
|| IL10; CSIF; IL-10; IL10A; MGC126450; MGC126451; TGIF
| External IDs
|| OMIM: 124092 MGI: 96537 Homologene: 478
| Molecular Function:
|| • cytokine activity|
• interleukin-10 receptor binding
• protein binding
| Cellular Component:
|| • extracellular region|
• extracellular space
| Biological Process:
|| • anti-apoptosis|
• inflammatory response
• immune response
• cytoplasmic sequestering of NF-kappaB
• cell-cell signaling
• B cell differentiation
• leukocyte chemotaxis
• T-helper 2 type immune response
• B cell proliferation
• negative regulation of T cell proliferation
• defense response to bacterium
• negative regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process
• negative regulation of interferon-gamma biosynthetic process
• regulation of isotype switching
• negative regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process
• positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process
• negative regulation of interferon-alpha biosynthetic process
| RNA expression pattern
More reference expression data
|| NM_000572 (mRNA)|
|| Chr 1: 205.01 - 205.01 Mb
|| Chr 1: 132.85 - 132.85 Mb
| Pubmed search
Interleukin-10 (IL-10 or IL10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.
This cytokine is produced primarily by monocytes and to a lesser extent by lymphocytes. This cytokine has pleiotropic effects in immunoregulation and inflammation. It down-regulates the expression of Th1 cytokines, MHC class II Ags, and costimulatory molecules on macrophages. It also enhances B cell survival, proliferation, and antibody production. This cytokine can block NF-κB activity, and is involved in the regulation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Knockout studies in mice suggested the function of this cytokine as an essential immunoregulator in the intestinal tract.
A study in mice has shown that interleukin-10 is also produced by mast cells, couteracting the inflammatory effect that these cells have at the site of an allergic reaction.
Additional recommended knowledge
It is capable of inhibiting synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines like Interferon-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, TNFα and GM-CSF made by cells such as macrophages and the Type 1 T helper cells.
IL-10 also displays potent abilities to suppress the antigen presentation capactiy of antigen presenting cells.
However, it is also stimulatory towards certain T cells, mast cells and B cells.
It is mainly expressed in monocytes and Type 2 T helper cells (TH2), mast cells and also in a certain subset of activated T cells and B cells.
It is released by cytotoxic T-cells to inhibit the actions of NK cells during the immune response to viral infection.
Gene and Protein Structure
In humans, the IL-10 gene is located in chromosome 1 and consists of 5 exons.
The IL-10 protein is a homodimer . Each subunit is 178 amino acids long.
- ^ Entrez Gene: IL10 interleukin 10.
- ^ Grimbaldeston M et al (2007). "Mast cell–derived interleukin 10 limits skin pathology in contact dermatitis and chronic irradiation with ultraviolet B". Nature Immunology 8: 1095-1104.
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- Asadullah K, Sabat R, Friedrich M, et al. (2004). "Interleukin-10: an important immunoregulatory cytokine with major impact on psoriasis.". Current drug targets. Inflammation and allergy 3 (2): 185-92. PMID 15180472.
- Stenvinkel P, Ketteler M, Johnson RJ, et al. (2005). "IL-10, IL-6, and TNF-alpha: central factors in the altered cytokine network of uremia--the good, the bad, and the ugly.". Kidney Int. 67 (4): 1216-33. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.00200.x. PMID 15780075.
- Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines.". Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry 5 (12): 1093-101. PMID 16375755.