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Interleukin 10

Interleukin 10
PDB rendering based on 2H24.
Available structures: 1ilk, 1inr, 1j7v, 1lk3, 1vlk, 1y6k, 1y6m, 1y6n, 2h24, 2ilk
Symbol(s) IL10; CSIF; IL-10; IL10A; MGC126450; MGC126451; TGIF
External IDs OMIM: 124092 MGI: 96537 Homologene: 478
RNA expression pattern

More reference expression data

Human Mouse
Entrez 3586 16153
Ensembl ENSG00000136634 ENSMUSG00000016529
Uniprot P22301 Q0VBJ1
Refseq NM_000572 (mRNA)
NP_000563 (protein)
NM_010548 (mRNA)
NP_034678 (protein)
Location Chr 1: 205.01 - 205.01 Mb Chr 1: 132.85 - 132.85 Mb
Pubmed search [1] [2]

Interleukin-10 (IL-10 or IL10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.

This cytokine is produced primarily by monocytes and to a lesser extent by lymphocytes. This cytokine has pleiotropic effects in immunoregulation and inflammation. It down-regulates the expression of Th1 cytokines, MHC class II Ags, and costimulatory molecules on macrophages. It also enhances B cell survival, proliferation, and antibody production. This cytokine can block NF-κB activity, and is involved in the regulation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Knockout studies in mice suggested the function of this cytokine as an essential immunoregulator in the intestinal tract.[1]

A study in mice has shown that interleukin-10 is also produced by mast cells, couteracting the inflammatory effect that these cells have at the site of an allergic reaction.[2]



It is capable of inhibiting synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines like Interferon-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, TNFα and GM-CSF made by cells such as macrophages and the Type 1 T helper cells.

IL-10 also displays potent abilities to suppress the antigen presentation capactiy of antigen presenting cells.

However, it is also stimulatory towards certain T cells, mast cells and B cells.


It is mainly expressed in monocytes and Type 2 T helper cells (TH2), mast cells and also in a certain subset of activated T cells and B cells.

It is released by cytotoxic T-cells to inhibit the actions of NK cells during the immune response to viral infection.

Gene and Protein Structure

In humans, the IL-10 gene is located in chromosome 1 and consists of 5 exons.

The IL-10 protein is a homodimer . Each subunit is 178 amino acids long.


  1. ^ Entrez Gene: IL10 interleukin 10.
  2. ^ Grimbaldeston M et al (2007). "Mast cell–derived interleukin 10 limits skin pathology in contact dermatitis and chronic irradiation with ultraviolet B". Nature Immunology 8: 1095-1104.

Further reading

  • Moore KW, de Waal Malefyt R, Coffman RL, O'Garra A (2001). "Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor.". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 19: 683-765. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.19.1.683. PMID 11244051.
  • Girndt M (2003). "Humoral immune responses in uremia and the role of IL-10.". Blood Purif. 20 (5): 485-8. PMID 12207099.
  • Beebe AM, Cua DJ, de Waal Malefyt R (2003). "The role of interleukin-10 in autoimmune disease: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and multiple sclerosis (MS).". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 13 (4-5): 403-12. PMID 12220553.
  • Mocellin S, Panelli MC, Wang E, et al. (2004). "The dual role of IL-10.". Trends Immunol. 24 (1): 36-43. PMID 12495723.
  • Roncarolo MG, Battaglia M, Gregori S (2004). "The role of interleukin 10 in the control of autoimmunity.". J. Autoimmun. 20 (4): 269-72. PMID 12791310.
  • Groux H, Cottrez F (2004). "The complex role of interleukin-10 in autoimmunity.". J. Autoimmun. 20 (4): 281-5. PMID 12791313.
  • Llorente L, Richaud-Patin Y (2004). "The role of interleukin-10 in systemic lupus erythematosus.". J. Autoimmun. 20 (4): 287-9. PMID 12791314.
  • Asadullah K, Sabat R, Friedrich M, et al. (2004). "Interleukin-10: an important immunoregulatory cytokine with major impact on psoriasis.". Current drug targets. Inflammation and allergy 3 (2): 185-92. PMID 15180472.
  • Stenvinkel P, Ketteler M, Johnson RJ, et al. (2005). "IL-10, IL-6, and TNF-alpha: central factors in the altered cytokine network of uremia--the good, the bad, and the ugly.". Kidney Int. 67 (4): 1216-33. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.00200.x. PMID 15780075.
  • Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines.". Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry 5 (12): 1093-101. PMID 16375755.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Interleukin_10". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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