| Crystal structure of human IL-4 (2INT)
| Available structures: 1bbn, 1bcn, 1cyl, 1hij, 1hik, 1hzi, 1iar, 1iti, 1itl, 1itm, 1rcb, 2b8u, 2b8x, 2b8y, 2b8z, 2b90, 2b91, 2cyk, 2d48, 2int
|| IL4; BSF1; IL-4; MGC79402
| External IDs
|| OMIM: 147780 MGI: 96556 Homologene: 491
| Molecular Function:
|| • interleukin-4 receptor binding|
• protein binding
| Cellular Component:
|| • extracellular region|
• extracellular space
| Biological Process:
|| • chemotaxis|
• cellular defense response
• cholesterol metabolic process
• B cell differentiation
• positive regulation of B cell proliferation
• T-helper 2 type immune response
• positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation
• regulation of phosphorylation
• positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein
• negative regulation of apoptosis
• connective tissue growth factor biosynthetic process
• regulation of isotype switching
• positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process
• negative regulation of osteoclast differentiation
• positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
• positive regulation of isotype switching to IgE isotypes
• positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes
• regulation of immune response
| RNA expression pattern
More reference expression data
|| NM_000589 (mRNA)|
|| Chr 5: 132.04 - 132.05 Mb
|| Chr 11: 53.46 - 53.46 Mb
| Pubmed search
Interleukin-4, abbreviated IL-4, is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells. Upon activation by IL-4, Th2 cells subsequently produce additional IL-4. The cell that initially produces IL-4, thus inducing Th0 differentiation, has not been identified.
Additional recommended knowledge
It has many biological roles, including the stimulation of activated B-cell and T-cell proliferation, and the differentiation of CD4+ T-cells into Th2 cells.
It is a key regulator in humoral and adaptive immunity.
IL-4 induces B-cell class switching to IgE, and up-regulates MHC class II production.
This cytokine was co-discovered by Maureen Howard and William Paul and by Dr. Ellen Vitetta and her research group in 1982.
The nucleotide sequence for human IL-4 was isolated four years later confirming its similarity to a mouse protein called B-cell stimulatory factor-1 (BCSF-1).
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- Izuhara K, Arima K, Yasunaga S (2003). "IL-4 and IL-13: their pathological roles in allergic diseases and their potential in developing new therapies.". Current drug targets. Inflammation and allergy 1 (3): 263-9. PMID 14561191.
- Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines.". Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry 5 (12): 1093-101. PMID 16375755.
- Olver S, Apte S, Baz A, Kienzle N (2007). "The duplicitous effects of interleukin 4 on tumour immunity: how can the same cytokine improve or impair control of tumour growth?". Tissue Antigens 69 (4): 293-8. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2007.00831.x. PMID 17389011.