Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells. It is also synthesized by endothelial cells, which store IL-8 in their storage vesicles, the Weibel-Palade bodies.
Toll-like receptors are the receptors of the innate immune system. These receptors recognize antigen patterns (like LPS in gram negative bacteria). Through a chain of biochemical reactions IL-8 is secreted and is an important mediator of the immune reaction in the innate immune system response.
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the CXC chemokine family. This chemokine is one of the major mediators of the inflammatory response. This chemokine is secreted by several cell types. It functions as a chemoattractant, and is also a potent angiogenic factor. This gene is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis, a common respiratory tract disease caused by viral infection. This gene and other ten members of the CXC chemokine gene family form a chemokine gene cluster in a region mapped to chromosome 4q.
IL-8 can be secreted by any cells with toll-like receptors which are involved in the innate immune response. IL-8's primary function is to recruit neutrophils to phagocytose the antigen which trigger the antigen pattern toll-like receptors.
When first encountering an antigen, the primary cells to encounter it are the macrophages who phagocytose the particle. Upon processing, they release chemokines to signal other immune cells to come in to the site of inflammation. IL-8 is one such chemokine. It serves as a chemical signal that attracts neutrophils at the site of inflammation, and therefore is also known as Neutrophil Chemotactic Factor.
If a pregnant mother has high levels of interleukin-8, she has a higher risk of inducing schizophrenia in her offspring. High levels of Interleukin 8 have been shown to reduce the chance of good treatment responses to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia.
Interleukin-8 is often associated with inflammation.
IL-8 was renamed CXCL8 by the Chemokine Nomenclature Subcommittee of the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Immunological Societies, although its approved gene symbol remains IL8.
Interleukin 8 receptor, alpha
Interleukin 8 receptor, beta
^ Wolff B, Burns AR, Middleton J, Rot A. Endothelial cell "memory" of inflammatory stimulation: human venular endothelial cells store interleukin 8 in Weibel-Palade bodies. J Exp Med. 1998 Nov 2;188(9):1757-62. PMID 9802987
^ Utgaard JO, Jahnsen FL, Bakka A, Brandtzaeg P, Haraldsen G. Rapid secretion of prestored interleukin 8 from Weibel-Palade bodies of microvascular endothelial cells. J Exp Med. 1998 Nov 2;188(9):1751-6. PMID 9802986
^ Brown AS, Hooton J, Schaefer CA, Zhang H, Petkova E, Babulas V, Perrin M, Gorman JM, Susser ES. Elevated maternal interleukin-8 levels and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 May;161(5):889-95. Abstract fulltext
^ Zhang XY, Zhou DF, Cao LY, Zhang PY, Wu GY, Shen YC. Changes in serum interleukin-2, -6, and -8 levels before and during treatment with risperidone and haloperidol: relationship to outcome in schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004 Jul;65(7):940-7.
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