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Interleukin 8




Interleukin 8
PDB rendering based on 1IL8.
Available structures: 1icw, 1ikl, 1ikm, 1il8, 1ilp, 1ilq, 1qe6, 2il8, 3il8
Identifiers
Symbol(s) IL8; 3-10C; AMCF-I; CXCL8; GCP-1; GCP1; K60; LECT; LUCT; LYNAP; MDNCF; MONAP; NAF; NAP-1; NAP1; SCYB8; TSG-1; b-ENAP
External IDs OMIM: 146930 Homologene: 47937
RNA expression pattern

More reference expression data

Orthologs
Human Mouse
Entrez 3576 na
Ensembl ENSG00000169429 na
Uniprot P10145 na
Refseq NM_000584 (mRNA)
NP_000575 (protein)
na (mRNA)
na (protein)
Location Chr 4: 74.83 - 74.83 Mb na
Pubmed search [1] na

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells. It is also synthesized by endothelial cells, which store IL-8 in their storage vesicles, the Weibel-Palade bodies[1][2].

Toll-like receptors are the receptors of the innate immune system. These receptors recognize antigen patterns (like LPS in gram negative bacteria). Through a chain of biochemical reactions IL-8 is secreted and is an important mediator of the immune reaction in the innate immune system response.


The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the CXC chemokine family. This chemokine is one of the major mediators of the inflammatory response. This chemokine is secreted by several cell types. It functions as a chemoattractant, and is also a potent angiogenic factor. This gene is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis, a common respiratory tract disease caused by viral infection. This gene and other ten members of the CXC chemokine gene family form a chemokine gene cluster in a region mapped to chromosome 4q.[3]

It is also secreted in urinary tract infections.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Function

IL-8 can be secreted by any cells with toll-like receptors which are involved in the innate immune response. IL-8's primary function is to recruit neutrophils to phagocytose the antigen which trigger the antigen pattern toll-like receptors.

When first encountering an antigen, the primary cells to encounter it are the macrophages who phagocytose the particle. Upon processing, they release chemokines to signal other immune cells to come in to the site of inflammation. IL-8 is one such chemokine. It serves as a chemical signal that attracts neutrophils at the site of inflammation, and therefore is also known as Neutrophil Chemotactic Factor.

Clinical significance

If a pregnant mother has high levels of interleukin-8, she has a higher risk of inducing schizophrenia in her offspring.[4] High levels of Interleukin 8 have been shown to reduce the chance of good treatment responses to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia.[5]

Interleukin-8 is often associated with inflammation.

Nomenclature

IL-8 was renamed CXCL8 by the Chemokine Nomenclature Subcommittee of the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Immunological Societies, although its approved gene symbol remains IL8.

See also

  • Interleukin 8 receptor, alpha
  • Interleukin 8 receptor, beta

References

  1. ^ Wolff B, Burns AR, Middleton J, Rot A. Endothelial cell "memory" of inflammatory stimulation: human venular endothelial cells store interleukin 8 in Weibel-Palade bodies. J Exp Med. 1998 Nov 2;188(9):1757-62. PMID 9802987
  2. ^ Utgaard JO, Jahnsen FL, Bakka A, Brandtzaeg P, Haraldsen G. Rapid secretion of prestored interleukin 8 from Weibel-Palade bodies of microvascular endothelial cells. J Exp Med. 1998 Nov 2;188(9):1751-6. PMID 9802986
  3. ^ Entrez Gene: IL8 interleukin 8.
  4. ^ Brown AS, Hooton J, Schaefer CA, Zhang H, Petkova E, Babulas V, Perrin M, Gorman JM, Susser ES. Elevated maternal interleukin-8 levels and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 May;161(5):889-95. Abstract fulltext
  5. ^ Zhang XY, Zhou DF, Cao LY, Zhang PY, Wu GY, Shen YC. Changes in serum interleukin-2, -6, and -8 levels before and during treatment with risperidone and haloperidol: relationship to outcome in schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004 Jul;65(7):940-7.

Further reading

  • Baggiolini M, Clark-Lewis I (1992). "Interleukin-8, a chemotactic and inflammatory cytokine.". FEBS Lett. 307 (1): 97-101. PMID 1639201.
  • Wahl SM, Greenwell-Wild T, Hale-Donze H, et al. (2000). "Permissive factors for HIV-1 infection of macrophages.". J. Leukoc. Biol. 68 (3): 303-10. PMID 10985244.
  • Starckx S, Van den Steen PE, Wuyts A, et al. (2003). "Neutrophil gelatinase B and chemokines in leukocytosis and stem cell mobilization.". Leuk. Lymphoma 43 (2): 233-41. PMID 11999552.
  • Smirnova MG, Kiselev SL, Gnuchev NV, et al. (2003). "Role of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in the pathogenesis of the otitis media with effusion.". Eur. Cytokine Netw. 13 (2): 161-72. PMID 12101072.
  • Struyf S, Proost P, Van Damme J (2004). "Regulation of the immune response by the interaction of chemokines and proteases.". Adv. Immunol. 81: 1-44. PMID 14711052.
  • Chakravorty M, Ghosh A, Choudhury A, et al. (2004). "Ethnic differences in allele distribution for the IL8 and IL1B genes in populations from eastern India.". Hum. Biol. 76 (1): 153-9. PMID 15222686.
  • Yuan A, Chen JJ, Yao PL, Yang PC (2006). "The role of interleukin-8 in cancer cells and microenvironment interaction.". Front. Biosci. 10: 853-65. PMID 15569594.
  • Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines.". Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry 5 (12): 1093-101. PMID 16375755.


 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Interleukin_8". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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