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## Elastic modulusAn ## Additional recommended knowledgewhere Specifying how stress and strain are to be measured, including directions, allows for many types of elastic moduli to be defined. The three primary ones are -
*Young's modulus*(`E`) describes tensile elasticity, or the tendency of an object to deform along an axis when opposing forces are applied along that axis; it is defined as the ratio of tensile stress to tensile strain. It is often referred to simply as the*elastic modulus*. - The
*shear modulus*or*modulus of rigidity*(`G`or μ) describes an object's tendency to shear (the deformation of shape at constant volume) when acted upon by opposing forces; it is defined as shear stress over shear strain. The shear modulus is part of the derivation of viscosity. - The
*bulk modulus*(`K`) describes volumetric elasticity, or the tendency of an object's volume to deform when under pressure; it is defined as volumetric stress over volumetric strain, and is the inverse of compressibility. The bulk modulus is an extension of Young's modulus to three dimensions.
Three other elastic moduli are Poisson's ratio, Lamé's first parameter, and P-wave modulus. Homogeneous and isotropic (similar in all directions) materials (solids) have their (linear) elastic properties fully described by two elastic moduli, and one may choose any pair. Given a pair of elastic moduli, all other elastic moduli can be calculated according to formulas in the table below. Inviscid fluids are special in that they can not support shear stress, meaning that the shear modulus is always zero. This also implies that Young's modulus is always zero.
## See also- Stiffness
- Elastic limit
- Elasticity (physics)
- Tensile strength
- Elastic wave
- Dynamic modulus
Categories: Materials science | Continuum mechanics |
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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Elastic_modulus". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. |