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CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1) is a family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting cells. They are related to the class I MHC molecules, and are involved in the presentation of lipid antigens to T cells.
Additional recommended knowledge
CD1 glycoproteins can be classified primarily into two groups which differ in their lipid anchoring.
CD1a, CD1b and CD1c (group 1 CD1 molecules) are expressed on cells specialized for antigen presentation.
CD1d (group 2 CD1) is expressed in a wider variety of cells.
CD1e is an intermediate form, expressed intracellularly, the role of which is currently unclear.
Group 1 CD1 molecules have been shown to present foreign lipid antigens, and specifically a number of mycobacterial cell wall components, to CD1-specific T cells.
The natural antigens of group 2 CD1 are not well-characterized, but a synthetic glycolipid, alpha-galactosylceramide, originally isolated from a compound found in a marine sponge, has strong biologic activity.
Group 2 CD1 molecules activate a group of T cells, known as Natural killer T cells because of their expression of NK surface markers such as CD161. Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are activated by CD1d-presented antigens, and rapidly produce Th1 and Th2 cytokines, typically represented by interferon-gamma and IL-4 production.
The group 2 (CD1d) ligand alpha-galactosylceramide is currently in phase I clinical trials for the treatment of advanced non-hematologic cancers.
In cows and mice
Mice lack the group 1 CD1 molecules, and instead have 2 copies of CD1d. Thus, mice have been used extensively to characterize the role of CD1d and CD1d-dependent NKT cells in a variety of disease models.
It has recently been shown that cows lack the group 2 CD1 molecules, and have an expanded set of group 1 CD1 molecules. Because of this and the fact that cows are a natural host of Mycobacterium bovis, a pathogen in humans as well, it is hoped that studying cows will yield insights into the group 1 CD1 antigen-presenting system.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "CD1". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|