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List of elements by symbol



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Contents

This is a list of chemical elements by symbol, including the current signification used to identify the chemical elements as recognized by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, as well as proposed and historical signs. Also given is each element's atomic number, atomic mass or most stable isotope, group and period numbers on the periodic table, and etymology of the symbol.

NOTE: placing one's cursor over the entry in the etymology column will display a modern English translation for words of Greek, Latin, or other origin.


Current symbols

 

Symbol Name Etymology of Symbol Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Group Period
AcActiniumcorruption of the Greek aktinos89[227][1] 7
AgSilverLatin argentum47107.8682(2)[2]115
AlAluminium (Aluminum)Latin alumen1326.9815386(8)133
AmAmericiumthe Americas95[243][1] 7
ArArgonGreek argon1839.948(1)[2] [3]183
AsArsenicGreek arsenikos3374.92160(2)154
AtAstatineGreek astatos85[210][1]176
AuGoldLatin aurum79196.966569(4)116
BBoronborax510.811(7)[2] [4] [3]132
BaBariumGreek barys56137.327(7)26
BeBerylliumberyl49.012182(3)22
BhBohriumNeils Bohr107[264][1]77
BiBismuthcorruption of the German wissmuth83208.98040(1)156
BkBerkeliumBerkeley, California97[247][1] 7
BrBromineGreek bromos3579.904(1)174
CCarbonLatin carbo612.0107(8)[2] [3]142
CaCalciumLatin calx2040.078(4)[2]24
CdCadmiumcorruption of the Greek kadmia48112.411(8)[2]125
CeCeriumCeres58140.116(1)[2] 6
CfCaliforniumState and University of California98[251][1] 7
ClChlorineGreek chloros1735.453(2)[2] [4] [3]173
CmCuriumPierre and Marie Curie and the traditional -um ending96[247][1] 7
CoCobaltcorruption of the German kobold2758.933195(5)94
CrChromiumGreek chroma2451.9961(6)64
CsCaesium (Cesium)Latin caesius55132.9054519(2)16
CuCopperLatin Cuprum2963.546(3)[3]114
DbDubniumDubna, Russia105[262][1]57
DsDarmstadtiumDarmstadt, Germany110[271][1]107
DyDysprosiumGreek dysprositos66162.500(1)[2] 6
ErErbiumYtterby, Sweden68167.259(3)[2] 6
EsEinsteiniumAlbert Einstein99[252][1] 7
EuEuropiumEurope63151.964(1)[2] 6
FFluorineLatin fluo918.9984032(5)172
FeIronLatin ferrum2655.845(2)84
FmFermiumEnrico Fermi100[257][1] 7
FrFranciumFrance87[223][1]17
GaGalliumLatin Gallia3169.723(1)134
GdGadoliniumgadolinite64157.25(3)[2] 6
GeGermaniumGermany3272.64(1)144
HHydrogenGreek hydror11.00794(7)[2] [4] [3]11
HeHeliumGreek helios24.002602(2)[2] [3]181
HfHafniumLatin Hafnia72178.49(2)46
HgMercuryLatin hydrargyrum80200.59(2)126
HoHolmiumLatin Holmia67164.930 32(2) 6
HsHassiumHesse, Germany108[277][1]87
IIodineGreek ioeides53126.904 47(3)175
InIndiumindigo blue49114.818(3)135
IrIridiumGreek iris77192.217(3)96
KPotassium (Kalium)Latin kalium1939.0983(1)14
KrKryptonGreek kryptos3683.798(2)[2] [4]184
LaLanthanumGreek lanthanien57138.90547(7)[2] 6
LiLithiumGreek lithos36.941(2)[2] [4] [3] [5]12
LrLawrenciumErnest O. Lawrence103[262][1]37
LuLutetiumLatin Lutetia71174.967(1)[2]36
MdMendeleviumDmitri Mendeleyev101[258][1] 7
MgMagnesiumMagnesia, Greece1224.3050(6)23
MnManganeseLatin magnes2554.938045(5)74
MoMolybdenumGreek molybdos4295.94(2)[2]65
MtMeitneriumLise Meitner109[268][1]97
NNitrogenGreek nitron714.0067(2)[2] [3]152
NaSodiumLatin natrium1122.98976928(2)13
NbNiobiumNiobe4192.906 38(2)55
NdNeodymiumGreek neos didymos60144.242(3)[2] 6
NeNeonGreek neos1020.1797(6)[2] [4]182
NiNickelGerman kupfernickel2858.6934(2)104
NoNobeliumAlfred Nobel102[259][1] 7
NpNeptuniumNeptune93[237][1] 7
OOxygenGreek oxys815.9994(3)[2] [3]162
OsOsmiumGreek osme76190.23(3)[2]86
PPhosphorusGreek phosphoros1530.973762(2)153
PaProtactiniumGreek protos and actinium91231.03588(2)[1] 7
PbLeadLatin plumbum82207.2(1)[2] [3]146
PdPalladiumPallas and the traditional -dium ending46106.42(1)[2]105
PmPromethiumPrometheus61[145][1] 6
PoPoloniumPoland84[210][1]166
PrPraseodymiumGreek prasios59140.90765(2) 6
PtPlatinumGreek platina78195.084(9)106
PuPlutoniumPluto94[244][1] 7
RaRadiumLatin radius88[226][1]27
RbRubidiumLatin rubidus3785.4678(3)[2]15
ReRheniumGerman Rheinprovinz75186.207(1)76
RfRutherfordiumErnest Rutherford104261[1]47
RgRoentgeniumWilhelm Conrad Röntgen111[272][1]117
RhRhodiumGreek rhodon45102.905 50(2)95
RnRadonradium and emanation86[220][1]186
RuRutheniumLatin Ruthenia44101.07(2)[2]85
SSulfur (Sulphur)Latin sulfur1632.065(5)[2] [3]163
SbAntimonyLatin stibium51121.760(1)[2]155
ScScandiumScandinavia2144.955912(6)34
SeSeleniumGreek selene3478.96(3)[3]164
SgSeaborgiumGlenn T. Seaborg106[266][1]67
SiSiliconLatin silex1428.0855(3)[3]143
SmSamariumsamarskite62150.36(2)[2] 6
SnTinLatin stannum50118.710(7)[2]145
SrStrontiumLatin Strontian3887.62(1)[2] [3]25
TaTantalumKing Tantalus73180.94788(2)56
TbTerbiumYtterby, Sweden65158.92535(2) 6
TcTechnetiumGreek technetos43[98][1]75
TeTelluriumGreek tellus52127.60(3)[2]165
ThThoriumThor90232.03806(2)[1] [2] 7
TiTitaniumthe Titans2247.867(1)44
TlThalliumGreek thallos81204.3833(2)136
TmThuliumThule and the traditional -ium ending69168.93421(2) 6
UUraniumUranus92238.02891(3)[1] [2] [4] 7
UubUnunbiumLatin uni, uni, and bi112[285][1]127
UuhUnunhexiumLatin uni, uni, and Greek hex116[292][1]167
UuoUnunoctiumLatin uni, uni, and oct118[294][1]187
UupUnunpentiumLatin uni, uni, and Greek pent115[288][1]157
UuqUnunquadiumLatin uni, uni, and quadr114[289][1]147
UutUnuntriumLatin uni, uni, and Greek tri113[284][1]137
VVanadiumVanadis2350.9415(1)54
WTungstenGerman wolfram74183.84(1)66
XeXenonGreek xenos54131.293(6)[2] [4]185
YYttriumYtterby, Sweden3988.90585(2)35
YbYtterbiumYtterby, Sweden70173.04(3)[2] 6
ZnZincGerman zin3065.409(4)124
ZrZirconiumzircon4091.224(2)[2]45

Symbols not currently used

The following is a list of names formerly used or suggested for use in naming the elements listed above. Also included in this list are placeholder names and names given by discredited claimants for discovery. Names which retain local use (as with aluminum and jod) are not included in this table.

Chemical SymbolNameAtomic NumberOrigin of SymbolWhy Not Used
AArgon18Current symbol is Ar. [6]
AbAlabamine85Discredited claim to discovery of astatine. [7]
AmAlabamium85Discredited claim to discovery of astatine. [7]
AnAthenium99Proposed name for einsteinium. [8]
AoAusonium93Discredited claim to discovery of neptunium. [7]
AzAzote7Former name for nitrogen. [6]
BvBrevium91Former name for protactinium. [6]
BzBerzelium59Suggested name for praseodymium. [8]
CbColumbium41Former name of niobium. [6]
CbColumbium95Suggested name for americium. [8]
CpCassiopeium71Former name for lutetium. [6]
CtCenturium100Proposed name for fermium. [8]
CtCeltium72Former name of hafnium. [6]
DaDanubium43Suggested name for technetium. [8]
DbDubnium104Proposed name for rutherfordium. The symbol and name were used for element 105. [6] [8]
EbEkaboron21Name given by Mendeleev to an as of then undiscovered element. When discovered, scandium closely matched the prediction. [8] [9]
ElEkaaluminium31Name given by Mendeleev to an as of then undiscovered element. When discovered, gallium closely matched the prediction. [8] [9]
EmEmanation86Also called radium emanation, the name was originally given by Friedrich Ernst Dorn in 1900. In 1923, this element officially became radon (the name given at one time to 222Rn, an isotope identified in the decay chain of radium). [6]
EmEkamangan43Name given by Mendeleev to an as of then undiscovered element. When discovered, technetium closely matched the prediction. [8] [9]
EsEkasilicon32Name given by Mendeleev to an as of then undiscovered element. When discovered, germanium closely matched the prediction. [8] [9]
EsEsperium94Discredited claim to discovery of plutonium. [7]
FaFrancium87Current symbol is Fr. [6]
FrFlorentium61Discredited claim to discovery of promethium. [7]
GlGlucinium4Former name of beryllium. [6]
HaHahnium105Proposed name for dubnium. [8]
HaHahnium108Proposed name for hassium. [8]
IlIllinium61Discredited claim to discovery of promethium. [7]
JgJargonium72Discredited claim to discovery of hafnium. [7]
JoJoliotium105Proposed name for dubnium. [8]
KuKurchatovium104Proposed name for rutherfordium. [8]
LwLawrencium103Current symbol is Lr. [6]
MMuriaticum17Former name of chlorine. [6]
MaMasurium43Disputed claim to discovery of technetium. [7]
MdMendelevium97Proposed name for berkelium. The symbol and name were later used for element 101. [6] [8]
MeMendelevium68Suggested name for erbium. [6]
MsMasrium49Discredited claim of discovery of indium. [7]
MtMeitnium91Suggested name for protactinium. [8]
MvMendelevium101Current symbol is Md. [6]
NgNorwegium72Discredited claim to discovery of hafnium. [7]
NiNiton86Former name for radon. [6]
NoNorium72Discredited claim to discovery of hafnium. [7]
NsNielsbohrium105Proposed name for dubnium. [8]
NsNielsbohrium107Proposed name for bohrium. [8]
NtNiton86Suggested name for radon. [8]
NyNeoytterbium70Former name of ytterbium. [6]
OdOdinium62Suggested name for samarium. [8]
PcPolicium110Proposed name for darmstadtium. [8]
PePelopium41Former name for niobium. [6]
PoPotassium19Current symbol is K. [6]
RfRutherfordium106Proposed name for seaborgium. The symbol and name were instead used for element 104. [6] [8]
SaSamarium62Current symbol is Sm. [6]
SoSodium11Current symbol is Na. [6]
SpSpectrium70Suggested name for ytterbium. [8]
StAntimony51Current symbol is Sb. [6]
TnTungsten74Current symbol is W. [6]
TuThulium69Current symbol is Tm. [6]
TuTungsten74Current symbol is W. [6]
TyTyrium60Suggested name for neodymium. [8]
UnbUnnilbium102Temporary name given to nobelium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
UneUnnilennium109Temporary name given to meitnerium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
UnhUnnilhexium106Temporary name given to seaborgium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
UnoUnniloctium108Temporary name given to hassium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
UnpUnnilpentium105Temporary name given to dubnium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
UnqUnnilquadium104Temporary name given to rutherfordium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
UnsUnnilseptium107Temporary name given to bohrium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
UntUnniltrium103Temporary name given to lawrencium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
UnuUnnilunium101Temporary name given to mendelevium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
UunUnunnilium110Temporary name given to darmstadtium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
UuuUnununium111Temporary name given to roentgenium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
ViVirginium87Discredited claim to discovery of francium. [7]
VmVirginium87Discredited claim to discovery of francium. [7]
YtYttrium39Current symbol is Y. [6]

Pictographic symbols

The following is a list of pictographic symbols employed to symbolize elements known since ancient times (for example to the alchemists). Not included in this list are symbolic representations of substances previously called elements (such as certain rare earth mineral blends and the classical elements fire and water of ancient philosophy) which are known today to be multi-atomic. Also not included are symbolic representations currently used for elements in other languages such as the Traditional Chinese elements. Modern alphabetic notation was introduced in 1814 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius.

Chemical SymbolOriginal NameModern NameAtomic NumberOrigin of SymbolWhy Not Used
HydrogenHydrogen1Daltonian symbol circa 1808. [6]
SulfurSulfur16Alchemical symbol. [6]
PallasSulfur16Alchemical symbol. [6]
SulfurSulfur16Daltonian symbol circa 1808. [6]
MagnesiumMagnesium21Alchemical symbol. [6]
MarsIron26Alchemical symbol. [6]
Stellae FixaeCopper29Pre-1500s alchemical symbol. [6]
VenusCopper29Alchemical symbol. [6]
CopperCopper29Alchemical symbol. [6]
©CopperCopper29Daltonian symbol circa 1808. [6]
ArsenicArsenic33Alchemical symbol. [6]
LunaSilver47Alchemical symbol. [6]
IupiterTin50Alchemical symbol. [6]
AntimonyAntimony51Alchemical symbol. [6]
AntimonyAntimony51Alchemical symbol. [6]
PlatinumPlatinum78Alchemical symbol. [6]
PlatinumPlatinum78Alchemical symbol. [6]
UranusPlatinum78Alchemical symbol. [6]
SolGold79Alchemical symbol from the 1500s[6]
SolGold79Alchemical symbol from 1700 through 1783. [6]
[1]PiscesMercury80Pre-1500s alchemical symbol. [6]
NeptunusMercury80Alchemical symbol from the 1600s. [6]
MercuriusMercury80Alchemical symbol from 1700 through 1783. [6]
SaturnusLead82Alchemical symbol circa 1783. [6]
TaurusBismuth83Alchemical symbol. [6]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj The element does not have any stable nuclides, and a value in brackets, e.g. [209], indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element. However, three elements, Thorium, Protactinium, and Uranium, have a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition, and thus their atomic mass given.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am The isotopic composition of this element varies in some geological specimens, and the variation may exceed the uncertainty stated in the table.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o The isotopic composition varies in terrestrial material such that a more precise atomic weight can not be given.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h The isotopic composition of the element can vary in commercial materials, which can cause the atomic weight to deviate significantly from the given value.
  5. ^ The atomic weight of commercial Lithium can vary between 6.939 and 6.996—analysis of the specific material is necessary to find a more accurate value.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az Name changed due to a standardization of, modernization of, or update to older previously used symbol.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Name designated by discredited/disputed claimant.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Name proposed prior to discovery/creation of element or prior to official re-naming of a placeholder name.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Temporary placeholder name.

Symbols for named isotopes

The following is a list of isotopes of elements given in the previous tables which have been designated unique symbols. By this it is meant that a comprehensive list of current systematic symbols (in the uAtom form) are not included in the list and can instead be found in the Index to isotope pages chart. Some of the following symbols are no longer in use within the scientific community, however others (most notably some of the named isotopes of hydrogen) continue to be used today. Many of these symbols were designated during the early years of radiochemistry, and several isotopes (namely those in the actinium decay family, the radium decay family, and the thorium decay family) bear placeholder names using the early naming system devised by Ernest Rutherford. Although it is not an isotope, this is perhaps the most useful place to mention that H is the proposed symbol for the only created anti-element, antihydrogen.

Chemical SymbolNameAtomic NumberOrigin of Symbol
AcActinium89From the Greek aktinos. Name restricted at one time to 227Ac, an isotope of actinium. This named isotope later became the official name for element 89.
AcAActinium A84From actinium and A. Placeholder name given at one time to 215Po, an isotope of polonium identified in the decay chain of actinium.
AcBActinium B82From actinium and B. Placeholder name given at one time to 211Pb, an isotope of lead identified in the decay chain of actinium.
AcCActinium C83From actinium and C. Placeholder name given at one time to 211Bi, an isotope of bismuth identified in the decay chain of actinium.
AcC'Actinium C'84From actinium and C'. Placeholder name given at one time to 211Po, an isotope of polonium identified in the decay chain of actinium.
AcC"Actinium C"81From actinium and C". Placeholder name given at one time to 207Tl, an isotope of thallium identified in the decay chain of actinium.
AcKActinium K87Name given at one time to 223Fr, an isotope of francium identified in the decay chain of actinium.
AcUActino-Uranium92Name given at one time to 235U, an isotope of uranium.
AcXActinium X88Name given at one time to 223Ra, an isotope of radium identified in the decay chain of actinium.
AnActinon86From actinium and emanation. Name given at one time to 219Rn, an isotope of radon identified in the decay chain of actinium.
DDeuterium1From the Greek deuteros. Name given to 2H.
IoIonium90Name given at one time to 230Th, an isotope of thorium identified in the decay chain of uranium.
MsTh1Mesothorium 188Name given at one time to 228Ra, an isotope of radium.
MsTh2Mesothorium 289Name given at one time to 228Ac, an isotope of actinium.
PaProtactinium91From the Greek protos and actinium. Name restricted at one time to 231Pa, an isotope of protactinium. This named isotope later became the official name for element 91.
RaRadium88From the Latin radius. Name restricted at one time to 226Ra, an isotope of radium. This named isotope later became the official name for element 88.
RaARadium A84From radium and A. Placeholder name given at one time to 218Po, an isotope of polonium identified in the decay chain of radium.
RaBRadium B82From radium and B. Placeholder name given at one time to 214Pb, an isotope of lead identified in the decay chain of radium.
RaCRadium C83From radium and C. Placeholder name given at one time to 214Bi, an isotope of bismuth identified in the decay chain of radium.
RaC'Radium C'84From radium and C'. Placeholder name given at one time to 214Po, an isotope of polonium identified in the decay chain of radium.
RaC"Radium C"81From radium and C". Placeholder name given at one time to 210Tl, an isotope of thallium identified in the decay chain of radium.
RaDRadium D82From radium and D. Placeholder name given at one time to 210Pb, an isotope of lead identified in the decay chain of radium.
RaERadium E83From radium and E. Placeholder name given at one time to 210Bi, an isotope of bismuth identified in the decay chain of radium.
RaE"Radium E"81From radium and E". Placeholder name given at one time to 206Tl, an isotope of thallium identified in the decay chain of radium.
RaFRadium F84From radium and F. Placeholder name given at one time to 210Po, an isotope of polonium identified in the decay chain of radium.
RdAcRadioactinium90Name given at one time to 227Th, an isotope of thorium.
RdThRadiothorium90Name given at one time to 228Th, an isotope of thorium.
RnRadon86From radium and emanation. Name restricted at one time to 222Rn, an isotope of radon identified in the decay chain of radium. This named isotope later became the official name for element 86 in 1923.
TTritium1From the Greek tritos. Name given to 3H.
ThThorium90After Thor. Name restricted at one time to 232Th, an isotope of thorium. This named isotope later became the official name for element 90.
ThAThorium A84From thorium and A. Placeholder name given at one time to 216Po, an isotope of polonium identified in the decay chain of thorium.
ThBThorium B82From thorium and B. Placeholder name given at one time to 212Pb, an isotope of lead identified in the decay chain of thorium.
ThCThorium C83From thorium and C. Placeholder name given at one time to 212Bi, an isotope of bismuth identified in the decay chain of thorium.
ThC'Thorium C'84From thorium and C'. Placeholder name given at one time to 212Po, an isotope of polonium identified in the decay chain of thorium.
ThC"Thorium C"81From thorium and C". Placeholder name given at one time to 208Tl, an isotope of thallium identified in the decay chain of thorium.
ThXThorium X88Name given at one time to 224Ra, an isotope of radium identified in the decay chain of thorium.
TnThoron86From thorium and emanation. Name given at one time to 220Rn, an isotope of radon identified in the decay chain of thorium.
UIUranium I92Name given at one time to 238U, an isotope of uranium.
UIIUranium II92Name given at one time to 234U, an isotope of uranium.
UX1Uranium X190Name given at one time to 234Th, an isotope of thorium identified in the decay chain of uranium.
UX2Uranium X291Name given at one time to 234Pa, an isotope of protactinium identified in the decay chain of uranium.
UYUranium Y90Name given at one time to 231Th, an isotope of thorium identified in the decay chain of uranium.
UZUranium Z91Name given at one time to 234Pa, an isotope of protactinium identified in the decay chain of uranium.

Other symbols that look like element symbols

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj The element does not have any stable nuclides, and a value in brackets, e.g. [209], indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element. However, three elements, Thorium, Protactinium, and Uranium, have a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition, and thus their atomic mass given.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am The isotopic composition of this element varies in some geological specimens, and the variation may exceed the uncertainty stated in the table.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o The isotopic composition varies in terrestrial material such that a more precise atomic weight can not be given.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h The isotopic composition of the element can vary in commercial materials, which can cause the atomic weight to deviate significantly from the given value.
  5. ^ The atomic weight of commercial Lithium can vary between 6.939 and 6.996—analysis of the specific material is necessary to find a more accurate value.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az Name changed due to a standardization of, modernization of, or update to older previously used symbol.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Name designated by discredited/disputed claimant.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Name proposed prior to discovery/creation of element or prior to official re-naming of a placeholder name.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Temporary placeholder name.

References

  • Element name etymologies. Retrieved July 15, 2005.
  • Atomic Weights of the Elements 2001, Pure Appl. Chem. 75(8), 1107-1122, 2003. Retrieved June 30, 2005. Atomic weights of elements with atomic numbers from 1-109 taken from this source.
  • IUPAC Standard Atomic Weights Revised (2005).
  • WebElements Periodic Table. Retrieved June 30, 2005. Atomic weights of elements with atomic numbers 110-116 taken from this source.
  • Lapp, Ralph E. Matter. Life Science Library. New York: Time Incorporated. 1963.
  • Leighton, Robert B. Principles of Modern Physics. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1959.


 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "List_of_elements_by_symbol". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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