Etoxeridine was developed in the 1950s and investigated for use in surgical anasthesia, however it was never commercialised and is not currently used in medicine.
^ Merlevede E, Levis S. Pharmacological study of carbetidine, a new synthetic analgesic. (French). Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. 1958 May 1;115(1-2):213-32.
^ Sironi PG. Brief note on a new synthetic analgesic: carbetidine hydrochloride. (Italian). Minerva Anestesiologica. 1959 Jun;25(6):251-4.
^ Crawford JS, Foldes FF. Studies on the respiratory and circulatory effects of carbetidine HCI used for supplementation of thiopentone sodium-nitrous oxide-oxygen anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 1959 Aug;31:348-51.