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Systematic (IUPAC) name
CAS number 2152-34-3
ATC code N06BA05
PubChem 159765
DrugBank APRD01169
Chemical data
Formula C9H8N2O2 
Mol. mass 176.172 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 50% bound to plasma proteins
Metabolism Hepatic
Half life 12 hours
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

B U.S.

Legal status

Schedule IV (United States)
Schedule IV (Canada)
Lista II (Argentina)

Routes Oral

Pemoline (sold as Cylert) is a medication used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, it is a Schedule IV drug.[1]

Pemoline has some advantages over other stimulants in that it does not reduce the appetite or cause dry mouth.

Hepatotoxicity and discontinuation

In some patients Pemoline is suspected of causing hepatotoxicity, so regular liver tests are performed on those treated with it. Since receiving FDA approval in 1975, it has been linked with 21 cases of liver failure, of which 13 resulted in liver replacement or death. In 2005, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) withdrew approval for pemoline due to pressure from certain public advocacy groups, including Public Citizen. The patient support group "Narcolepsy Network"[2] tried to persuade the FDA not to ban it, on the grounds that some patients find all other treatments ineffective or to have debilitating side effects. The medication was used by an estimated 10,000 Americans afflicted with narcolepsy. A more potent analogue of pemoline, 4-methylaminorex has appeared as a black market drug with abuse potential similar to methamphetamine.

In March 2005, Abbott Laboratories (Cylert marketer) had discontinued the production of Cylert arguing economic reasons.


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See also

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Pemoline". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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